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Lineages and Results of Y-DNA Testing for a BROWN Family Early to New England
Haplogroup R1b-Y44983
This page is compiled in the interest of finding — through the use of Y-DNA testing and traditional paper genealogy — the common ancestor and origin of four genetically matching American males surnamed BROWN, each with an early appearance in New England. 

Initial results showed them as being Haplogroup R1b-P312 and as having Y-DNA STR matches close enough to have a common ancestor in genealogical time.  R1b is the most common haplogroup in western Europe (see maps), and the two great subdivisions of R1b are U106 and P312.  Because of their common haplogroup, coupled with a common surname — BROWN is the 4th most common surname in the United States — deeper testing was needed to confirm their match, so all four have upgraded to 111 markers.  In addition, two have taken the BigY, the results of which initially indicated our BROWNs belong to a rare R1b-P312 subclade, namely, R1b-FGC16982, an immediate subclade of R1b-DF99 — see R-DF99 and Subclades project at FTDNA. 

An examination of their variant SNPs, ones unique to them, shows a shared variant that has now been named as a new SNP, Y44983!  One or more of their currently unshared variants may prove a match with one or both of our other two BROWNs, so it would be very helpful for the other two to also take the BigY.  Knowing exactly how these four connect, in detail, should help us with their paper genealogy.

Below is a simplified Haplogroup R1b haplotree showing the position of DF99, parallel to the largest subdivision of P312, namely L21 — the largest subclade for western European males — along with two less common parallel subclades (DF27 and U152) and five other rare ones.

The fact that the DF99 is parallel to L21 and the others indicates this is a very old branch in the tree, one that either never was very common or has dwindled down from once having been common in a process known as genetic drift.  In other words, the small clade size does not indicate a lack of "fitness" (i.e., we are not being weeded out by natural selection!), it's just a  chance reduction of lines "daughtering out."  The fact that DF99 is an old branch in the tree also explains why we, as English BROWNs, are showing up with distant relatives whose earliest ancestors are from Germany, Italy, and Belgium, etc.  The fact that each of these DF99 subclades is distinguished by many SNP differences is also an indication of long separation since the DF99 mutation occurred. 

The bottom line for us BROWNs is that our rare STR haplotype is in accord with our rare SNP haplogroup subclade, which means we should have no problem separating ourselves from other BROWNs.  It likely also means we may have a long wait before we get enough near, non-BROWN, SNP-tested relatives to reveal our geographic origin beyond what we already know:  that we're almost certainly English.

Update (5 Oct 2018):  Alex Williamson has analyzed our two Big-Y tested BROWNs with the result that he found they shared 25 SNPs downstream of FGC16982, 23 of them already named.  This means, so far at least, that we are very distantly related to any other known family, BROWN or otherwise.

So far, the paper pedigrees of our BROWN males have not intersected, though all four trace back to New England.  We have solid paper trails leading us to:  1) New Hampshire in 1807; 2) Massachusetts ca. 1732/3) Connecticut ca. 1710; and 4) Rowley, MA, in 1646.  The other question now raised is whether this American BROWN family is the result of only one immigration or as many as four distinct immigrations.

Simplified Y-DNA Haplogroup R Haplotree Focused on the Position of DF99
(U106 and P312 are the major subdivisions of R1b; L21 is the major subclade of P312.)
SNPs Subclades1
ISOGG2 FTDNA3
M207=Page37=UTY2 M734=PF6057=S4=YSC0000201 P224=PF6050 P227 P229=PF6019 P232 P280 P285 PF6014=S9 R R-M207
___ M173=P241=Page29 M306=PF6147=S1 P225 P231 P233=PF6142 P234 P236 P242=PF6113 P245=PF6117 P286=PF6136 P294=PF6122 R-1 R-M173
___ M420=L146=PF6229 L62=M512=PF6200 L63=M511=Pf6203 L145=M449=PF6175 R-1a R-M420
M343=PF6242 P25(P25_1 P25_2 P25_3) L278 M415=PF6251 R-1b R-P25 / R-M343
___ L754=PF6269=YSC0000022 R-1b1 R-L754
___ L389=PF6468 R-1b1a R-L389
___ P297=PF6398 L320 R-1b1a-1 R-P297
___ M73 M478 R-1b1a-1a R-M73 / R-M478
M269... R-1b1a-1b R-M269
___ L23=PF6534=S141 L49.1=S349 R-1b1a-1b1 R-L23
___ L51=M412=PF6536=S167 R-1b1a-1b1a R-L51
___ P310=PF6546=S129 R-1b1a-1b1a-1 R-P310
___ L151=PF6542 L52=PF6541 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a R-L151
___ U106=M405=S21 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a1 R-U106
P312=PF6547=S116 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2 R-P312
___ DF27=S250 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2a R-DF27
U152=PF6570=S28 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2b R-U152
L21=M529=S145 L459 S461=Z290 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2c R-L21
L238=S182 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2d R-L238
DF19=S232 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2e R-DF19
DF99 S11987 Z6001 Z29643 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2f R-DF99
___ BY3449 BY3450 BY15472 Y22677 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2f-1 R-BY3450
FGC16981 = Y5047
FGC16982 = Y5049
FGC16983 = Y5048
R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2f-2 R-FGC16982
___ S16136 S23540 [12 subclades] R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2f-2a R-S16126
BY39134... [two subclades] R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2f-2b R-BY39134
[BROWN shared variants]
2837000 GT > G
7230799 A > AC
BY23447 BY127644 BY177818
FGC19394
Y44983 Y45420 Y46326 Y46805 Y47421 Y47524 Y48279 Y50014 Y50214 Y50758 Y51160 Y52030 Y52643 Y52904 Y53764 Y53894 Y55468 Y57235 Y57403 Y57456 Y57739 Y59485 Y59568
[2 unnamed subclades]
R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2f-2c R-Y44983
___ [unshared variants]
BY28714, BY28715, 17339491, 18938971
Kit #326703 BROWN [YFull ID YF04083]
[unshared variant]
21603481
Kit #691956 BROWN [YFull ID YF15426]
FGC846=Y2834 FGC847=Y2833
FGC7556=Y2832 FGC896 [7 subclades]
R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2f-3 R-FGC847
Y18209 Y18210/11/12/13 Z44612 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2g  
A9063 R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2h
ZZ38 ZZ37? R-1b1a-1b1a-1a2i
1DF99 base subclades as per ytree.net as of 4 Aug 2018.  They are currently recognizing three base subclades of DF99, plus many subclades not included here.  Also see discussion of The Big Tree by Alex Williamson. 
2ISOGG = International Society for Genetic Genealogy.  ISOGG is not currently recognizing any subclades of DF99, so the greyed DF99 subclade labels are only tentative.
3FTDNA = Family Tree DNA.  As of 21 Sep 2018, FTDNA has recognized the variant shared by #326703 and #691956 as a newly named SNP:  Y44983.
4YFull shows our R-Y5047 SNP as being formed 4000 YBP [Years Before Present] and our TMRCA (Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor) as 3700 YBP.

To view more of the page without scrolling, temporarily reduce the text size or page size in your browser.  Red labels indicate markers that typically mutate more frequently than those labeled in black.  (Empty cells that are darkened indicate tests not ordered.)  Keywords for search engines: genetic genealogy.

To view lineages, please scroll to the right.
Genetic Distance
(per panel)
Surname Kit# FF Most
Down-
stream
Positive
Shared
SNP
Actually
Tested
  Panel 1 — Standard Markers 1-12   Panel 2 — Standard Markers 13-25   Panel 3 — Standard Markers 26-37   Panel 4 — Standard Markers 38-67   Panel 5 — Standard Markers 68-111  
Sample Sizes | Known Lineages
STR PP3 PP5 MP6 MP7 MP8 MP9 [mixed] MP10 [EA] MP11 [SMGF] MP12 [all new] MP13 [mixed]
12 25 37 67 111 3
9
3
3
9
0
19
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
a
|
3
8
5
b
|
3
8
5
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
i
|
3
8
9
3
9
2
ii
|
3
8
9
4
5
8
a
|
4
5
9
b
|
4
5
9
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
a
|
4
6
4
b
|
4
6
4
c
|
4
6
4
d
|
4
6
4
4
6
0
H4
|
G
A
T
A
IIa
|
Y
C
A
IIb
|
Y
C
A
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
a
|
C
D
Y
b
|
C
D
Y
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
a
|
S1
3
9
5
b
|
S1
3
9
5
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
S1
4
0
6
5
1
1
4
2
5
a
|
4
1
3
b
|
4
1
3
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
7
1
0
4
8
5
6
3
2
4
9
5
5
4
0
7
1
4
7
1
6
7
1
7
5
0
5
5
5
6
5
4
9
5
8
9
5
2
2
4
9
4
5
3
3
6
3
6
5
7
5
6
3
8
4
6
2
4
5
2
4
4
5
A10
|
G
A
T
A
4
6
3
4
4
1
1B
07
|
GG
AA
T
5
2
5
7
1
2
5
9
3
6
5
0
5
3
2
7
1
5
5
0
4
5
1
3
5
6
1
5
5
2
7
2
6
6
3
5
5
8
7
6
4
3
4
9
7
5
1
0
4
3
4
4
6
1
4
3
5
3 4 3 6 17 R1b-P312 Modal Values   13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29   17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17   11 11 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 38 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   35 15 9 16 12 26 26 19 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 12 13 24 13 10 10 21 15 19 13 24 17 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11   per DGM
2 5 3 5 18 R1b-DF99 Modal Values   13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17   11 11 19 23 15 15 18 17 35 39 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   36 15 9 16 12 27 26 19 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 12 13 24 13 10 10 20 15 19 13 24 17 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11   per DGM n = 36 at 12, 25, and 37 markers; n = 32 at 67 markers; n = 14 at 111 markers 
0 0 0 0  0 BROWN Family Modal Values   13 23 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 15 17 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 8 12 24 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   32.2 15 9 16 11 27 26 18 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 11 12 24 13 10 10 23 15 18 13 25 18 12 16 25 12 23 18 11 14 18 9 12 11   n = 5 at 12, 25, 37, and 67 markers; n = 4 at 111 markers
                                             
0 0 0 0  1 BROWN 691956 FF Y44983   13 23 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 15 17 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 8 12 24 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   32.2 15 9 16 11 27 26 18 12 11 12 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 11 12 24 13 10 10 23 15 13 13 25 18 12 16 25 12 23 18 11 14 18 9 12 11   Pvt12, Pvt11, Clifford Rhodes10, Alexander Hudson9, Alexander Sherman8, Alexander7, Alexander6, Beriah5 III, Beriah4 II, Alexander3, Beriah2 I, Charles1 BROWNE (c1620-1687) England > Rowley, MA 
0 0 1 1  0 BROWN 326703 FF Y44983   13 23 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 15 18 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 9 12 24 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   32.2 15 9 16 11 27 26 18 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 11 12 24 13 10 10 23 15 18 13 25 18 12 16 25 12 23 18 11 14 18 9 12 11   Pvt7, Pvt6, Paul Truman5, Benjamin Franklin4, Franklin Pierce3, Nathan2, Willard1 BROWN (c1807-1860s) of NH > NY > OH > MI
1 0 0 0  1 BROWN 213585 FF DF99   13 23 14 11 13 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 15 17 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 8 12 24 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   32.2 15 9 16 11 28 26 18 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 11 12 24 13 10 10 23 15 18 13 25 18 12 16 25 12 23 18 11 14 18 9 12 11   Pvt11, Pvt10, Alexander Prescott9, John Alexander8, Thomas7, Eliphalet6, Samuel5 BROWN (c1730- ) of Newbury, MA [tentatively] John4, James3, James2, James1 BROWN (c1604-1676) of Newbury, MA
0 0 1 1  2 BROWN 94821 FF DF99   13 23 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 16 17 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 8 12 24 20 14 12 11 14 11 11 12 12   32.2 15 9 16 11 27 26 18 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 11 12 24 13 10 10 22 15 18 13 25 18 12 16 26 12 23 18 11 14 18 9 12 11   Pvt11, Pvt10, William Henry9, Willis Grant8, Henry Leander7, Robert6, Robert5, Charles Benjamin4, Benjamin3, [questionably] Nathaniel2, Nathaniel1 BROWN
0 1 0 0   FERRELL 56335   P312   13 23 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   19 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 15 17 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 8 12 24 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12                                                                                             Pvt… Isaac1 FERRELL (c1800- ) of Beaufort Dist., SC
                                             
These BROWNs are a close genetic match indicating they descend from a near common ancestor.  They are so close, they most likely descend either from the same immigrant or from closely related immigrants (e.g., brothers, 1st cousins, etc.).  They are Group No. 173 (page 2) at the FTDNA Brown DNA Study; they are Group No. 200 at the R-DF99 Project. Update (8 Sep 2018):  BigY-500 test results have returned for #691956.  He shares the FGC16982 SNP with #326703.  He has a 110/111 STR match with the family's modal haplotype, closer than the other three BROWNs, though none has a GD greater than four from the family modal haplotype.   These BROWNs are closely related!
As for their paper connections (scroll to far right in above table), I will continue to work on pushing their lines back as far as possible in the hope that, at some point, the lines intersect in a common ancestor.  If you have documentation that would help, please share. The unusual STR value of 12 at DYS389i (red table cells) was once thought to be a signature for DF99+, but turns out not to be, though it may represent a downstream branch in the DF99 clade.
Results have returned for the BigY test for #326703 (30 Jul 2015).  These results have been analyzed by Alex Williamson and the Admins of the Haplogroup R1b-P312 Project (see Page 2, Group E) — thank you!  The DF99+ result places these BROWNs in a rare subclade of P312 (see tree above).  #94821 and #213585 have taken the R1b-M343 Backbone SNP Bundle proving they, too, are positive for DF99. The FERRELL has no matches in the FARREL Y-DNA Surname Project, suggesting that, if there is an NPE here, it's in his patrilineal line, which is supported by the fact that the BROWNs do have matches with BROWN.
         
#691956 is supplying his ancestry as far as Beriah5 III. There are many files at WorldConnect and Ancestry Public Trees that take the line to Charles1, said by some to be the immigrant from England — some say from Suffolk, some from Derby; others say Charles is the son of the immigrant, John.  The online ancestries of Charles vary wildly, some including connections to royalty.  I have to say_caveat emptor on all of these although it certainly would be fun to prove one of them.  In any case, there are many people studying the ancestry of Charles, so we at least have some help.

Bottom line:  these four BROWNs are so tightly matched genetically, they have to connect either in the same immigrant or as immigrants from the same immediate family.



What constitutes a match?
Matches in other surnames are usually mere coincidence, so please ignore them — I'll let you know when you shouldn't!
For 12 markers: 9 or less is a non-relative; for 10-12 markers, please see this table compiled by FTDNA.
For 25 markers: 21 or less is a non-relative; for 22-25 markers,
For 37 markers: 31 or less is a non-relative; for 32-37 markers,
For 67 markers: 59 or less is a non-relative; for 60-67 markers,
For 111 markers: 100 or less is a non-relative; for 101-111 markers,
For any test:  0 matching markers, please contact NASA.

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