Go to Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Diana, Goddess of the Hunt — for Ancestors!
 
Go to Every-Name Index
Every-Name Index
 
Lineages and Results of Y-DNA Testing for a BROWN Family Early to New England
Haplogroup R1b-DF99
This page is compiled in the interest of finding — through the use of Y-DNA testing and traditional paper genealogy — the common ancestor and origin of three genetically matching American males surnamed BROWN, each with an early appearance in New England. 

Initial results showed them as being Haplogroup R1b-P312 and as having Y-DNA STR matches close enough to have a common ancestor in genealogical time.  R1b is the most common haplogroup in western Europe (see maps), and the two great subdivisions of R1b are U106 and P312.  Because of their common haplogroup, coupled with a common surname — BROWN is the 4th most common surname in the United States — deeper testing was needed to confirm their match, so all three have upgraded to 111 markers.  In addition, one has taken the BigY and the other two have taken the R1b-M343 SNP bundle to confirm they share the same terminal SNP, which they do.

BigY results indicate our BROWNs belong to a very rare R1b-P312 subclade, namely, R1b-DF99 — see R-DF99 and Subclades project at FTDNA.  Below is a simplified Haplogroup R1b haplotree showing the position of DF99, parallel to the largest subdivision of P312, namely L21 — the largest subclade for western European males — along with two less common parallel subclades (DF27 and U152) and two other rare ones (L238 and DF19).

The fact that the DF99 is parallel to L21 and the others indicates this is a very old branch in the tree, one that either never was very common or has dwindled down from once having been common in a process known as genetic drift.  In other words, the small clade size does not indicate a lack of "fitness" (i.e., we are not being weeded out by natural selection!), it's just a  chance reduction of lines "daughtering out."  The fact that DF99 is an old branch in the tree also explains why we, as English BROWNs, are showing up with distant relatives whose earliest ancestors are from Germany, Italy, and Belgium, etc.

The fact that each of these DF99 subclades is distinguished by many SNP differences is also an indication of long separation since the DF99 mutation occurred. 

The bottom line for us BROWNs is that our rare STR haplotype is in accord with our rare SNP haplogroup subclade, which means we'll have no problem separating ourselves from other BROWNs.  It likely also means we may have a long wait before we get enough near non-BROWN, SNP-tested relatives to reveal our geographic origin beyond what we already know:  that we're almost certainly English.

So far, the paper pedigrees of our BROWN males have not intersected, though all three trace back to New England.  We have solid paper trails leading us to New Hampshire in 1807 for one,  to Massachusetts ca. 1732 for the second, and to Connecticut ca. 1710 for the third.  I should mention that I may have assumed, incorrectly, that all descend from one immigrant.  The existence of two or even three immigrants (e.g., brothers or 1st cousins) is appearing possible, which may mean some early New England BROWN families who were not suspected of being related, in fact, are.

Simplified Y-DNA Haplogroup R Haplotree Focused on the Position of DF99
SNPs Subclades1
ISOGG2 FTDNA3
M207=Page37=UTY2 M734=PF6057=S4=YSC0000201 P224=PF6050 P227 P229=PF6019 P232 P280 P285 PF6014=S9 R R-M207
___ M173=P241=Page29 M306=PF6147=S1 P225 P231 P233=PF6142 P234 P236 P242=PF6113 P245=PF6117 P286=PF6136 P294=PF6122 R-1 R-M173
___ M420=L146=PF6229 L62=M512=PF6200 L63=M511=Pf6203 L145=M449=PF6175 R-1a R-M420
M343=PF6242 R-1b R-P25 
___ P25 (P25_1 P25_2 P25_3) L278 M415=PF6251 R-1b1
___ P297=PF6398 L320 R-1b1a R-P297
___ M73 M478 R-1b1a-1 R-M73 > R-M478
M269... R-1b1a-2 R-M269
___ L23=PF6534=S141 L49.1=S349 R-1b1a-2a R-L23
___ L51=M412=PF6536=S167 R-1b1a-2a1 R-L51
___ L151=PF6542 L52=PF6541 P310=PF6546=S129 P311=PF6545=S128 L11=PF6539=S127 R-1b1a-2a1a R-L151 > R-P310 > R-P311
___ U106=M405=S21 R-1b1a-2a1a-1 R-U106
P312=PF6547=S116 R-1b1a-2a1a-2
R-P312 _ (414 subclades) _ n=1700
___ DF27=S250 R-1b1a-2a1a-2a
R-DF27 _ (23 subclades) _ n=325
U152=PF6570=S28 R-1b1a-2a1a-2b
R-U152 _ (64 subclades) _ n=85
L21=M529=S145 L459 S461=Z290 R-1b1a-2a1a-2c
R-L21 _ (313 subclades) _ n=1255
L238=S182 R-1b1a-2a1a-2d
R-L238 _ (0 subclades) _ n=4
DF19=S232 R-1b1a-2a1a-2e
R-DF19 _ (5 subclades) _ n=8
DF99 S11987 Z6001 Z29643 R-1b1a-2a1a-2f
R-DF99 _ (6 subclades) _ n=12
___ FGC864 FGC846 Y2834 FGC847 Y2833 (R-1b1a-2a1a-2f1) HATTON 27064 FG1012A (England)
1000 Genomes HG02008 (Peru5)
FGC16982 Y5049 (R-1b1a-2a1a-2f2) BROWN 94821 (New England)
BROWN 213585 (New England)
BROWN 326703 (New England)
___ S16136 S23540 FGC16988 24869693-A-T (R-1b1a-2a1a-2f2a) ROLEY 216789
___ FGC16979 FGC17033 Y5046 Y5047 Y5048
FGC17038 FGC16995
(R-1b1a-2a1a-2f2a-1) 1000 Genomes NA20783 (Italy)
FIMBRES FB8X3 (Belgium)
ELLIS 244991 (England)
BY3449 BY3450 26715391-T-C (R-1b1a-2a1a-2f3) CANATO 323935 (Italy)
___ BY3447 17473973-G-A 17942775-A-G 18602764-T-A 19141185-C-G 22826458-T-G (R-1b1a-2a1a-2f3a) AYLOR 330524 (Germany)
NIX 110476
ZZ37 (R-1b1a-2a1a-2g)
R-ZZ37 _ (0 subclades) _ n=9
1DF99 subclades as per ytree.net as of 9 Jan 2016.  See especially discussion of The Big Tree by Alex Williamson.
2ISOGG = International Society for Genetic Genealogy.
3FTDNA = Family Tree DNA.
4ISOGG has not yet recognized subclades of DF99, so the greyed clade labels in parentheses () are not official, they simply indicate what the label would currently be if these turn out to be their relationships.
5Undoubtedly European on his patrilineal line.

To view more of the page without scrolling, temporarily reduce the text size or page size in your browser.  Red labels indicate markers that typically mutate more frequently than those labeled in black.  (Empty cells that are darkened indicate tests not ordered.)  Keywords for search engines: genetic genealogy.

To view lineages, please scroll to the right.
Genetic Distance
(per panel)
Surname Kit# FF Ysearch
UserID
Most
Down-
stream
Positive
SNP
Actually
Tested
  Panel 1 — Standard Markers 1-12   Panel 2 — Standard Markers 13-25   Panel 3 — Standard Markers 26-37   Panel 4 — Standard Markers 38-67   Panel 5 — Standard Markers 68-111  
Sample Sizes | Known Lineages
STR PP3 PP5 MP6 MP7 MP8 MP9 [mixed] MP10 [EA] MP11 [SMGF] MP12 [all new] MP13 [mixed]
12 25 37 67 111 3
9
3
3
9
0
19
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
a
|
3
8
5
b
|
3
8
5
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
i
|
3
8
9
3
9
2
ii
|
3
8
9
4
5
8
a
|
4
5
9
b
|
4
5
9
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
a
|
4
6
4
b
|
4
6
4
c
|
4
6
4
d
|
4
6
4
4
6
0
H4
|
G
A
T
A
IIa
|
Y
C
A
IIb
|
Y
C
A
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
a
|
C
D
Y
b
|
C
D
Y
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
a
|
S1
3
9
5
b
|
S1
3
9
5
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
S1
4
0
6
5
1
1
4
2
5
a
|
4
1
3
b
|
4
1
3
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
7
1
0
4
8
5
6
3
2
4
9
5
5
4
0
7
1
4
7
1
6
7
1
7
5
0
5
5
5
6
5
4
9
5
8
9
5
2
2
4
9
4
5
3
3
6
3
6
5
7
5
6
3
8
4
6
2
4
5
2
4
4
5
A10
|
G
A
T
A
4
6
3
4
4
1
1B
07
|
GG
AA
T
5
2
5
7
1
2
5
9
3
6
5
0
5
3
2
7
1
5
5
0
4
5
1
3
5
6
1
5
5
2
7
2
6
6
3
5
5
8
7
6
4
3
4
9
7
5
1
0
4
3
4
4
6
1
4
3
5
3 4 3 6 17 R1b-P312 Modal Values   13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29   17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17   11 11 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 38 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   35 15 9 16 12 26 26 19 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 12 13 24 13 10 10 21 15 19 13 24 17 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11   per DGM
2 5 3 5 18 R1b-DF99 Modal Values   13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17   11 11 19 23 15 15 18 17 35 39 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   36 15 9 16 12 27 26 19 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 12 13 24 13 10 10 20 15 19 13 24 17 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11   per DGM n = 36 at 12, 25, and 37 markers; n = 32 at 67 markers; n = 14 at 111 markers 
0 0 0 0  0 BROWN Family Modal Values   13 23 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 15 17 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 8 12 24 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   32 15 9 16 11 27 26 18 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 11 12 24 13 10 10 23 15 18 13 25 18 12 16 25 12 23 18 11 14 18 9 12 11   n = 4 at 12, 25, 37 and 67 markers; n = 3 at 111 markers
                                               
0 0 1 1  0 BROWN 326703 FF Y3VAW FGC16982   13 23 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 15 18 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 9 12 24 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   32 15 9 16 11 27 26 18 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 11 12 24 13 10 10 23 15 18 13 25 18 12 16 25 12 23 18 11 14 18 9 12 11   Pvt7, Pvt6, Paul Truman5, Benjamin Franklin4, Franklin Pierce3, Nathan2, Willard1 BROWN (c1807-1860s) of NH > NY > OH > MI
1 0 0 0  1 BROWN 213585 FF   DF99   13 23 14 11 13 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 15 17 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 8 12 24 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   32 15 9 16 11 28 26 18 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 11 12 24 13 10 10 23 15 18 13 25 18 12 16 25 12 23 18 11 14 18 9 12 11   Pvt11, Pvt10, Alexander Prescott9, John Alexander8, Thomas7, Eliphalet6, Samuel5 BROWN (c1730- ) of Newbury, MA [tentatively] John4, James3, James2, James1 BROWN (c1604-1676) of Newbury, MA
0 0 1 1  2 BROWN 94821 FF   DF99   13 23 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 16 17 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 8 12 24 20 14 12 11 14 11 11 12 12   32 15 9 16 11 27 26 18 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 11 12 24 13 10 10 22 15 18 13 25 18 12 16 26 12 23 18 11 14 18 9 12 11   Pvt11, Pvt10, William Henry9, Willis Grant8, Henry Leander7, Robert6, Robert5, Charles Benjamin4, Benjamin3, [questionably] Nathaniel2, Nathaniel1 BROWN
0 1 0 0   FERRELL 56335   XS3DU P312   13 23 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   19 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 16 18   11 11 19 23 15 15 17 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8  9 10 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 14 8 12 24 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12                                                                                             Pvt… Isaac1 FERRELL (c1800- ) of Beaufort Dist., SC
                                               
3 8 12 7 27 ROLEY 22627   HA3VP DF99   13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 12 13 27   18 9  9 11 11 25 14 19 30 15 15 15 15   11 11 19 23 14 15 19 18 34 34 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 11 11 12 23 24 16 11 13 12 15 8 12 23 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   37 15 9 17 12 27 26 19 12 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 12 11 31 12 13 24 13 10 11 20 15 19 12 24 16 13 15 24 12 23 19 10 14 17 9 12 11   Pvt
3         ROLEY 216789   7NVZR? DF99   13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 12 13 27                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Pvt
                                               
2 6 3 5 25 ELLIS 21572   T5KEW? DF99   13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 12 13 28   17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 31 15 16 16 17   11 10 19 23 16 15 16 17 36 40 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 11 10 8  8 11 12 23 23 16 11 12 12 15 8 12 23 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12   34 15 9 16 11 25 27 19 13 11 14 12 12 9 12 12 10 11 11 32 12 13 24 13 10 11 20 15 19 13 24 17 12 15 24 12 25 18 10 14 17 9 12 11   Pvt... Capt. Isaac3, Ellis2, Humphrey1 ELLIS (1688-1748) of Bala, North Wales, to Philadelphia, PA, in 1696
2         ELLIS 244991     DF99   13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 12 13 28                                                                                                                                                                                                               Pvt
                                               
8 5 3 7 19 FIMBRES 29073 HM33V? DF99   13 24 14 11 11 11 12 12 11 13 13 29   16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 16 16 17   11 11 20 23 15 15 17 17 35 41 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 11 12 23 23 15 10 12 12 14 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 11   34 15 9 16 12 26 26 19 13 11 14 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 12 13 24 13 10 10 22 15 20 13 24 17 11 15 24 12 23 18 11 13 17 9 12 11   Pvt... Juan1 DE FIMBRES / Joannes1 FIMBRES (1635- ) of Liege, Belgium
9 5 4 7   FIMBRES 272715   6YD2Z? DF99   13 24 14 11 11 11 12 12 10 13 13 29   16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 16 16 17   11 11 20 23 16 15 17 17 35  41 12 12   11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 11 12 23 23 15 10 12 12 14 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 11     Pvt... Gabriel FIMBRES of Sonora, Mexico, desc/o Juan DE FIMBRES
                                               
The three BROWNs are matching well enough to be descended from a common ancestor in genealogical time.  They are Group No. 173 (page 2) at the FTDNA Brown DNA Study. Results have returned for the BigY test for #326703 (30 Jul 2015).  These results have been analyzed by Alex Williamson and the Admins of the Haplogroup R1b-P213 Project (see Page 2, Group E) — thank you!  The DF99+ result places these BROWNs in a rare subclade of P312 (see tree above).  #94821 and #213585 have taken the R1b-M343 Backbone SNP Bundle proving they, too, are positive for DF99.
As for their paper connections (scroll to far right in above table), I will continue to work pushing their lines back as far as possible in the hope that, at some point, the lines intersect in a common ancestor.  If you have documentation that would help, please share. The unusual STR value of 12 at DYS389i (red table cells) was once thought to be a signature for DF99+, but turns out not to be, though it may represent a downstream branch in the DF99 clade.
The FERRELL has no matches in the FARREL Y-DNA Surname Project, suggesting that, if there is an NPE here, it's in his patrilineal line, which is supported by the fact that the three BROWNs do have matches. The genetic distances between the BROWNs, the ROLEYs, the ELLISes, and the FIMBRESes, as based on their Y-DNA STR testing, indicates they haven't the remotest possibility of being related in genealogical time on their patrilineal lines, which supports that DF99 is a very early branch off P312. However, it's of considerable interest that two of the BROWNs are having close FamilyFinder matches with the ROLEYs and ELLISes.  Have the families lived in geographical proximity for a very long time?  Or is it just a coincidence that they met up again?
         
The sample size for the DF99 modal values is still very small, which means the values shown probably aren't particularly representative of the subclade.  Even so, we are very distant from it, which is consistent with it being an old — and, it seems, dwindling — subclade.  In fact, we are as distant from the DF99 modal as we are from the P312 modal supporting that DF99 is an old branch of P312, not a recent one.


What constitutes a match?
Matches in other surnames are usually mere coincidence, so please ignore them — I'll let you know when you shouldn't!
For 12 markers: 9 or less is a non-relative; for 10-12 markers, please see this table compiled by FTDNA.
For 25 markers: 21 or less is a non-relative; for 22-25 markers,
For 37 markers: 31 or less is a non-relative; for 32-37 markers,
For 67 markers: 59 or less is a non-relative; for 60-67 markers,
For 111 markers: 100 or less is a non-relative; for 101-111 markers,
For any test:  0 matching markers, please contact NASA.

Contact Home
Page
Table of
Contents
DNA
Hub
Biddle
DNA
Carrico
DNA
Corbin
DNA
Cupp
DNA
Danish
DNA
Ely
DNA
Lyon(s)
DNA
Rasey
DNA
Reason
DNA
Rose
DNA
Straub
DNA
Pedigree
Charts
Census
Hubs
Every-Name
Indices

Table of Contents
Go to Table of Contents
Every-Name Index
Go to Every-Name Index