Test Results and Member Lineages
Members of the CARRICO project currently fall into nine unrelated groups
— unrelated, that is, in "genealogical time." We're all related if
you go back far enough.
Haplogroup I is found almost exclusively in Europe where it is represented
in about 20% of the population, second only to R1b. I1 is the most
common subclade of Hg I, and, geographically, it is highly concentrated
in northern Germany, Denmark, and southern Norway and Sweden. I1d
is most common in Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark.
I1d = I-L22 — CARRIÇO descendant in Portel, Alentejo, Portugal
We do not have a lineage for this individual, only the fact that he
is a living CARRIÇO residing in Portel, Alentejo, Portugal.
He is of the Norse-ultraNorse variety of I1d, which is most common in Norway.
He has no significant matches in the FTDNA, Ysearch, or SMGF databases.
A deep SNP test shows his most downstream positive SNP is L22.
The J2 subclade of Haplogroup J (see entries at Wikipedia
arose in the northern Fertile
Cresent, roughly 18,500 ±3500 years ago. It then spread
westwards around the Mediterranean and broadly eastwards throughout central
Asia and south into India. It is most common in Anatolia (about 25%
of Turks are J2).
Our J2 CARRICO's fall into two subclades: J2a4b and J2a4b1.
These two subclades have not shared a common ancestor for about 9000 years.
|Haplogroup J2a4 = J-L26
— CARRIÇO of Queluz, Portugal
This individual is a resident of Queluz (near Lisbon), Portugal.
He has no matches in the FTDNA database.
Most of these individuals are paper descendants of the American progenitor,
Peter CARRICO, 1674 immigrant to Maryland, including one surnamed BLAINE
who has a deliberate surname change in his patrilineal line. The
rest are presumed descendants of Peter (see
below), including the PHELPS who appears to have an NPE
in his patrilineal line.
The haplotypes of those tested to 67 markers match each other at high
levels, with none having a genetic distance of more than 3 from the family's
modal haplotype, solidly establishing that they have a near common ancestor.
Several have undergone deep SNP testing, with the result that they are
Haplogroup J2a4b* (= J-M67).
Their haplotypes are unique, which is not particularly unusual (about
40% of individuals tested have no match "out of the gate"); however, their
haplotypes are so unique that their distance to their nearest common
ancestor, even within their own J2a4b subclade, is calculated to be some
3210 to 4530 years. They have a value at one marker that is so unusual,
I'm told no one else so far tested has it (viz., DYS425=10t).
These unusual results have attracted the attention of Haplogroup J researchers,
which is very much to our benefit as we can rely on their interest to help
sort out our deep origins.
The mutation defining J2a4b (M67+) occurred an estimated 11.6 ±
2.6 thousand years ago. Today, individuals of this subclade can be
found throughout southern Europe, the Middle East, and northern Africa,
but the highest concentrations are in Italy and the countries surrounding
the eastern Black Sea (viz., Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, and southern
J2a4b1 = J-M92 — descendant of Joaquim CARRICO, of Portugal, then
This member descends from Joaquim Anastor CARRICO, who was born in Portugal
and emigrated to Brazil. His haplotype is unique, so he has no matches
with anyone at any level, though his haplotype is not as unusual as that
of the CARRICOs above. He has not been SNP tested, but his haplotype
includes the characteristic null value at DYS425, which indicates he is
subclade J2a4b1 on the FTDNA haplotree.
The mutation defining J2a4b1 (M92+) arose an estimated 8.8 ±
2.3 thousand years ago. Today, individuals of this subclade can found
in southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East, central and southern Asia,
northeastern Africa, and India. It is most concentrated in southern
Italy, southern Greece, Turkey, Egypt, and India.
Update: his deep SNP test is pending.
Haplogroup L appeared about 30,000 years ago and while most common in
southern India (as L1) and Pakistan (as L3), it is spread thinly westwards
across central Asia, southwestern Asia, and southern Europe (as L2).
Haplogroup L, along with Haplogroup J2, is thought to have been a founding
population of the civilization of the Indus Valley.
L2a = L-M349 — CARACO descendants of Bursa, Turkey
These two individuals have no known paper connection, but both have
an origin in Bursa Prov., Turkey (currently, one lives in France, the other
in the United States). One is a practicing Sephardic Jew. Their
haplotypes are rare, with no full matches with anyone else, including with
each other. They match at the level of 33/37, which means they have
a 95% chance of being related within 18 generations, some time in the 1400s.
By upgrading to 67 markers, we could have a better approximation as to
the nearness of their common ancestor.
Orthographically, surname CARACO appears Spanish, not Turkish, and the
surname is most common in Spain. It is known that, in the 1490s,
Sephardic Jews fled the Spanish Inquisition by migrating to Turkey, so
it appears this family was among them.
Subclade L2a is sometimes called the "Mediterranean" subclade of L because
it occurs (at a low frequency) across southern Europe in the countries
bordering the north coast of the Mediterranean Sea, from Turkey to Portugal.
One of these individuals has been deep SNP tested (gratis by FTDNA) showing
his most downstream positive SNP is M349.
R1b is the most common haplogroup in western Europe (see
map), the most common subclade being R1b1a2 (= R-M269 — old R1b1b2).
R1b is the group believed to have populated Europe from an Asian refugium
when the last glacial ice sheet retreated about 10-13,000 years ago.
Ancestral R1b1* is quite rare.
R-1b1* = R-P25* — CARASSO of Salonica, Greece
Two CARASSOs have been tested at FTDNA, although only one has joined
the project. Both have a proximate origin in Salonica (=Thesaloniki),
Greece, and they are a DNA match. Like the Haplogroup L2a CARACOs
(above), this Jewish family originated in Spain, but fled during the Spanish
Inquisition, only they fled to Greece, rather than Turkey. They are
now also to be found in Europe, especially Switzerland; the United States;
and Argentina. They have a near match to several other largely Jewish
families with a Spanish origin, and I have included them in their table
even though they are of other surnames and not officially members of the
R-1b1a-2a1a = R-L51 — CARRIÇO of Albufeira, Portugal
This individual lives in Albufeira, Portugal. He has no match
in the project or in the FTDNA database. Deep SNP testing is still
in progress; his most downstream positive SNP, so far, is L51.
R-1b1a-2a1a-1b = R-P312 — CARRICO of Ourém, Portugal
This individual has a rare haplotype, with no near, much less full,
matches at 25 or more markers. Deep SNP testing shows his most downstream
positive SNP is P312.
R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4 = R-L21 — Reason CARRICO of Sullivan Co., IN
The two brothers are descendants of Charles CARRICO of Sullivan Co.,
IN, presumed descendant of Peter CARRICO I, the immigrant, through Charles's
son, Reason CARRICO (1794-1878). While they match each other, they
do not match the other descendants of Peter CARRICO I, including descendants
of Reason's brothers, Basil and Josiah CARRICO. It appears these
brothers have an NPE,
a "non-paternal event" (i.e., a hidden adoption or illicit paternity),
in their patrilineal line, somewhere upstream of their father and downstream
of Charles. The NPE strongly points to Reason having been adopted
because, if so, it would resolve the long-standing issue of his birthdate
being too close to that of his next younger sibling.
One of the two brothers has been tested to 67 markers, and he has a
62/67 match with a descendant of Farrell LITTLETON, immigrant from London,
England, to Virginia, which is only barely close enough for him
to be a direct descendant of Farrell, but does support that they may have
a common ancestor, possibly back in England. This LITTLETON has joined
the project. This brother has also been deep SNP tested, with the
result that his most downstream positive SNP is L21.
It was expected that the paper descendants of Peter CARRICO, 1674 immigrant
to Maryland, would match closely, and they do. In addition, their
haplotypes are extremely rare, so Peter's descendants should have no difficulty
proving their connection to him. Other lines, without paper connections
to Peter, but presumed to be his descendants, have been connected via DNA
test results, namely:
|James T. CARRICO (1764-1814/5) of MD, then Washington Co., KY
|Peter CARRICO (<1765-c1815) of MD and Monongalia Co., VA [now Preston
|John Alexander CARRICO (1770s-1850s) of MD, then PA, then OH,
then KY, then Martin Co., IN
|Charles CARRICO (1770s-1830s) of MD, Washington Co., KY, and Sullivan
|Cornelius CARRICO (1771/2-1850s) of MD, then Nelson Co., KY,
then Washington Co., KY
|Nathaniel CARRICO (c1782-1854) of MD and Washington Co., KY
|Cornelius CARRICO (1797/8->1850), of MD, then Washington Co., KY, then
Graves Co., KY
|Matthew Gillaspie CARRICO (c1809-c1864) of KY, and Panola Co., TX
|Proteus CARRICO (1822-1901) of Larue Co., KY, then Sutter Co., CA,
then Siskiyou Co., CA
|John W. CARRICO (1826/7->1880) of Prince William Co., VA, then Fauquier
The NPE in the line of Reason CARRICO was an unpleasant surprise.
With the testing of enough cousins, the location of this NPE can be determined.
With the testing of enough LITTLETONs, we may be able to isolate their
probable common ancestor.
Because many have suspected the origin of the 1764 immigrant to Maryland
was Portugal, it has been a disappointment to the American CARRICOs that
none of the CARRICOs with an origin in Portugal tested, so far, has matched
them — nor have the Portuguese CARRIÇOs matched each other.
Most surnames have multiple origins, and CARRICO is proving to be no exception.
It was no surprise that the two CARACOs from Bursa, Turkey, matched
each other, while not matching the other CARRICOs, but one turns out to
be intriguing in his own right because he's only the second known practicing
Sephardic Jew who has tested as Haplogroup L (as of Aug 2008).
It was also no surprise that the two CARASSOs from Salonica, Greece,
matched each other. I would invite the one who has not joined the
project to please do so.
Time to drum up some new members! Remember, the best way to improve
your chances for a match is to bring more members into the project.
of DNA Testing for Genealogy
|Y-DNA surname projects are based on STR (Short Tandem Repeat) testing
of the male Y-chromosome. Test results consist of a series of numbers
that represent the counts of the number of times a small "junk" DNA segment
is duplicated at a given marker (location). Collectively, the pattern
of numbers resulting from STR testing is called a person's haplotype.
At FamilyTreeDNA, two introductory levels of Y-chromosome STR testing
are offered to new project members: 37-marker and 67-marker tests.
Every level of testing tells you something, but I have standardized my
projects on 67 markers because that level allows for confident estimations
of relatedness in virtually all cases. Advanced testing to 111 or
more markers is available to refine relationships (e.g., for distinguishing
branches of the same family).
STR testing measures relationship in a time frame of hundreds
of years, making the distance to the MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor)
sufficiently close to be genealogically useful. And "useful" is an
understatement. STR testing is a powerful tool for determing
whether people do or do not share a recent common ancestor, and it is the
foundation for Y-DNA surname projects.
There is another form of Y-chromosome DNA testing called SNP
testing — the acronym stands for "Single Nucleotide Polymorphism" and is
pronounced as a single word, "snip." Results of SNP testing are expressed
as + or - (positive or negative) to indicate the presence or absence of
a particular mutation. Each suspected mutation requires a separate
test. Results of SNP testing determine a person's haplogroup,
and deep testing (meaning exhaustively testing all known SNPs for the haplogroup)
can identify subgroups, called "subclades."
The haplogroup (sometimes abbreviated, "Hg") is a measure of
ancestry. The MRCA may be thousands of years in the past, which places
the individual's ancestry in a paleoanthropological time frame.
The chronological appearance of SNP mutations has been used to order the
branching of the "Y-DNA
Haplotree," and a SNP test will determine a male's position on the
A decade ago, I would have said SNP testing was merely "interesting"
in its ability to correlate haplogroups and their subclades with the paths
of human migration over the millenia, and I did not press my project members
to be SNP tested. I considered it of minimal use to the genealogist,
beyond the fact that being in different haplogroups totally rules out having
a near common ancestor (in genealogical time) — and because haplogroups
strongly separate families, they are a convenient way for me, as project
administrator, to organize surname project member results.
As each individual has just one evolutionary path on their patrilineal
line, so their SNP-based haplogroup should correlate with their
STR-based haplotype, and it does. If the haplotype is reasonably
common (or similar to one that is), it can be used to deduce the
basic Y-DNA haplogroup, without the added expense of SNP testing.
If the haplotype does not unequivocally indicate the haplogroup, FamilyTreeDNA
will do a "backbone" (basic) SNP test without charge to securely
determine the basic haplogroup. Deep SNP testing would still be needed
to determine the haplogroup subclade, and if your haplotype is rare, I
recommend deep SNP testing simply as an aid to researchers because their
research on your haplogroup ultimately tells you more about yourself.
At this writing (2012), the number of SNPs found has greatly increased,
and the rate of their discovery is increasing due, in part, to FTDNA's
through the Y" program. We are reaching the point where they
are of use to the genealogist, especially in the common haplogroups, as
the Y-DNA haplotree turns into a finely divided bush. For
that reason, I now urge that Y-DNA project members, especially those
who are Haplogroup R1b1a2 or I1 — the two most common haplogroups in western
Europe — be deep SNP tested and that they continue to test new SNPs as
they are discovered.
As the number of people STR tested increases, SNP testing will become
important in separating "borderline" STR matches that are merely coincidental,
that is, not indicative of real relationship, from ones that do indicate
real relationship. The problem of ambiguous coincidental matches,
particularly in Haplogroup R1b1a2, is going to increase as more people
are tested. Thankfully, deep SNP testing gives us a method for detecting
The bottom line is that, while SNP testing is not a requirement for
participation is a Y-DNA STR surname project, I encourage it because, while
I once thought deep SNP testing was merely "interesting," it has now become
actually useful to the genealogist.
In recognition of the fact that some individuals may find the cost of
DNA testing prohibitive and that these individuals may be the only representatives
of key lines in our genealogical research, Family Tree DNA has instituted
"General Funds" to allow researchers to subsidize the testing of these
key individuals. The fund can also be used as a simple way to give
someone a gift of DNA testing. Please see this
link at Family Tree DNA for more details. And please consider
a donation to the project as a way of bringing more lines into the project,
especially to help some of our elder kin be tested who may not otherwise
be able to afford it. There is also a field on the donation form
allowing you to make a donation in honor of a specific person. The
funds will be entirely collected and held by Family Tree DNA, but their
dispursement is implemented by your project administrator. You can
inform your project adminstrator whose test you want subsidized with your
donation or, if you wish, you can leave it up to the project administrator
to decide where the funds can best be applied. Please note that anonymous
donations are not just anonymous to the public; they are also anonymous
to the project admin. If you want the admin to know you made the
donation and/or have a special request for how it is to be spent, please
notify the admin by email at the time you make the donation.
There has been an instance in one of my projects where
a donor sent a prospective member a check, then the person never followed
through by joining the project. This situation can be avoided if
the researcher has, instead, donated the money to the project's General
Fund, because the money simply won't be spent if the person fails to join.
There has also been an instance in one of my projects
where a donor agreed to fund a test based on the promise of a secure line
to their progenitor, only for me to discover there was an adoption in the
line. In this case, the researcher had donated their money to the
General Fund, and I caught the NPE in time to deny the subsidy to the test
subject. This situation is also a reminder to examine someone's line,
yourself, before agreeing to subsidize their test — not that there was
intentional deception here, just flawed paper genealogy.
Bottom line: before sending a stranger a check,
please consider making a donation to the project's General Fund, instead.
And, please, in no case send money to me; I do not want the responsibility
of handling it.