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Table of Contents
Diana, Goddess of the Hunt — for Ancestors!
 
Go to Every-Name Index
Every-Name Index
 
Lineages and Results of Y-chromosome DNA Testing for Surname CARASSO / KARASSO / KARASO / etc.
and Other Genetically Related Families including ALANOF, ALVAREZ, ARELLANO, GARZA, HAMLIN, LEVI, and MENDEZ
Haplogroup R1b1* = R-P25*
Results
Hub
Y-DNA Haplogroups Represented in the Project
(sample size = number tested inside the project + number tested outside the project)
Project
Home
I1d
(n=1)
J2a4
(n=1)
J2a4b
(n=24+1)
J2a4b1
(n=1)
L2a
(n=2)
R1b1*
(n=1+1)
R1b1a2
(n=6)
The only individual in the table below who is officially a member of the CARRICO Y-DNA Surname Project is CARASSO #164134.  The other CARASSO (Ysearch UserID XEG9J) was tested outside the project, and I would implore him to please join the CARRICO project, too.  History has scattered your family widely, and your cousin would like to connect.

Because CARRICO is a surname project, it would not be appropriate for the others to officially join, but they are sufficiently related, genetically, to warrant including them in the table here.  The CARASSO family originated in Spain before migrating to Greece, Europe, and the United States, and the known origins of the others is in Spain, so a connection in Spain seems a certainty.

In the "gee whiz" department, Daniel "Danon" CARASSO (1905-2009), of Salonica, Greece, and Paris, France, was the founder of Dannon yogurt.  He had no sons, so no descendant can be Y-DNA tested for this project, but he is believed to be of the same CARASSO family as the above.  Unless someone else has already made the paper connection — please share if you have — making it would likely involve delving into records in Greece, and I'm afraid that one's quite beyond me.
I have yet to obtain SNP test results for everyone in the project, but the ones who have had a basic SNP test are M343+ or P25+, and the one who has been deep SNP tested is P25*.  The asterisk means the latter is not only positive for P25, but is also negative for all downstream SNPs, which would make him root/ancestral R1b1*.  [Cladistically speaking, R1b1* is a paraphyletic group or "paragroup" in that it does not include all of its descendant groups, as opposed to R1b1 (no asterisk), which does and is, thus, monophyletic.]

According to Vincent Vizachero, administrator of the R1b1* project at FTNDA, these values are strongly correlated with being R1b1*, namely, "DYS438=11 and one of the following: DYS426=11, DYS454=12, or DYS464a=12."  Everyone in the table, below, who has tested these markers has returned all four of these values (emphasized with boldface in the table).  It is so likely that everyone listed below is R1b1* that I'm assuming it to be the case. 

I do recommend that at least one member of each family be deep SNP tested to rule out any possibility that the haplotypes are merely coincidental.  It is not without concern that Ancestry-DNA (A-DNA) has shown the haplogroup of the LEVI (see results table below) as Haplogroup O!  A-DNA does not even do SNP testing, and they are notorious for making bad deductions of the haplogroup based on the haplotype, so it is a near certainty this deduction is incorrect.  It should be a warning to us, however, that we not depend on deductions, alone, but actually obtain actual deep SNP test results.

Once one member of a family is deep SNP tested, there is no real reason to test others because the chance of you being different is very slim.  The probability of a new, "private" SNP mutation isn't zero, however, so if money is not an object, test away.  You don't find what you don't look for.

Haplogroup R1b is by far the most common haplogroup in western Europe (see map), yet everyone below has a rare haplotype.  This rarity is a reflection of the fact that while haplogroup subclade R1b1a2 is the most common haplogroup in western Europe, the ancestral subclade, R1b1*, is quite rare.  To give you an idea of the proportion, as of this date (6 Feb 2010) there are 2283 members in the "R1b-all-subclades" project, yet only 60 members in the R1b1* project.  I strongly recommend that everyone below join the R1b1* project to improve our knowledge of this rare group.  (You can join additional projects by going to your member page at FTNDA and clicking the "Join Projects" button at the upper left.) 
Different labs have different standards and may produce different counts at the same marker.  It's important to make certain you are applying the correct conversion factors when comparing results from different labs.  In the data table below, I have used the FTDNA results, "as is," and I have extracted the results from the SMGF database using the FTDNA lab standard, so I have used those results "as is."  For the A-DNA test results, I have subtracted one each from GATA-H4 and DYS441.

Please be aware that the conversion page at Ysearch is currently out of date (at least as of 6 Feb 2010), in particular with regard to GATA-H4.  Please use the conversion page at SMGF, instead.

To view more of the page without scrolling, temporarily reduce the text size or page size in your browser.  Red labels indicate markers that typically mutate more frequently than those labeled in black.  (Empty cells that are darkened indicate tests not ordered.)  Keywords for search engines: genetic genealogy.

Surname FTDNA
Kit #
Ysearch
User ID
Most
Downstream
Positive
SNP
Actually
Tested
Haplotype — as determined by STR testing Known Lineage
Standard FTDNA Markers Advanced Markers
1-12 13-25 26-37 38-67 SMGF / Ancestry-DNA
3
9
3
3
9
0
19
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
a
|
3
8
5
b
|
3
8
5
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
i
|
3
8
9
3
9
2
ii
|
3
8
9
4
5
8
a
|
4
5
9
b
|
4
5
9
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
a
|
4
6
4
b
|
4
6
4
c
|
4
6
4
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
H4
|
G
A
T
A
IIa
|
Y
C
A
IIb
|
Y
C
A
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
a
|
C
D
Y
b
|
C
D
Y
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
a
|
S1
3
9
5
b
|
S1
3
9
5
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
S1
4
0
6
5
1
1
4
2
5
a
|
4
1
3
b
|
4
1
3
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
4
6
1
4
6
2
A10
|
G
A
T
A
C4
|
6
3
5
G
A
A
T
1B
07
4
4
1
4
4
5
4
5
2
4
6
3
R1b1* Modal Values YHE9G P25* 13 23 15 10 12 14 12 12 12 14 13 29 16 9 10 11 12 26 14 19 28 12 12 15 15 11 11 21 23 15 15 18 19 32 39 11 11 12 8 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 11 12 22 22 15 11 12 12 15 8 13 23 20 13 12 11 13 11 12 12 12 12 11 13 23 10 13 12 30 24 (Please see notes below.)
                   
CARASSO   XEG9J   13 21 16 11 13 14 11 12 12 14 13 29                                                                                                                                 Pvt — of Greece
CARASSO 164134 7AKNQ P25+ 13 22 16 11 13 14 11 12 12 14 13 29 19 9 10 11 12 27 14 19 28 12 12 14 15 11 11 21 23 14 15 18 19 32 36 12 11                                                                               Pvt3, Pvt2, Jack1 CARASSO (1877/8-)  — of Salonica, GRC 
HAMLIN       13 22 16 11 13 14 11 12 12 14 13 29                                                                                                                                 Pvt
GARZA 94642   indet 13 22 16 11 13 14 11 12 12 14 13 29                                                                                                                                 Pvt... Antonio2 de la GARZA, Leandro1 de la GARSA (1830- ) — of Villagran, TM
GARZA A-DNA  S3XVC   13 22 16 11 13 14 11 12 12 14 13 29 19     11 12 27   19 29 12 12 15 15 11 11 21 23               11                                                             12   12           24 Pvt... Antonio2 de la GARZA, Leandro1 de la GARSA (1830- ) — of Villagran, TM
ALVAREZ 150747 6XATJ P25* 13 22 16 11 13 14 11 12 12 14 13 29 20 9 10 11 12 27 14 19 29 12 12 15 15 11 11 21 23 14 15 18 19 32 36 12 11 12 8 15 16 8 10 11 8  9 11 12 22 23 15 11 12 12 15 8 13 24 20 13 12 11 13 11 12 12 13                   Pvt3, Pvt2, Antonio Ramon1 MENDEZ (1880- ) — of San Antonio, Bexar Co., TX 
LEVI A-DNA   [O?] 13 22 16 11 13 14 11 12 12 14 13 29 18     11 12 26   19 28 12 12 15 15 11 11 21 23               11                                                             12 11 12 23 12 13   31 24 Pvt
ARELLANO 146304   M343+ 13 22 16 11 13 15 11 12 12 14 13 29 18 9 10 11 12 27 14 19 28 12 12 15 15 11 11 21 23 14 15 18 19 32 36 12 11                                                                               Pvt… Cristobal2, Nicolas1 de ARELLANO (c1640s- ) — of Spain and Aguascalientes, AG
ARELLANO SMGF U4EE8   13 22 16 11 13 15 11 12 12 14 13 29 18 9 10 11 12 27 14 19 28 12 12 15 15 11 11 21 23 14           12 11                                       13     13               12 11 12 23 12 13 12 31 24 Pvt4, Pvt3, Valdimar2, Narcisco1 ARELLANO (c1906- ) — of Costilla, Taos Co., NM
ARELLANO   99HDQ [R1b1*] 13 22 16 11 13 15 11 12 12 14 13 29                                                                                                                                 Pvt... Sisto1 ARELLANO (c1899- ) — of Spain
ARELLANO   TJ3RJ   13 22 16 11 13 15 11 12 12 14 13 29                                                                                                                                 Pvt… Cristobal2, Nicolas1 de ARELLANO (c1640s- ) — of Spain and Aguascalientes, AG
ALALOF   68DJZ   13 22 16 11 13 15 11 12 12 14 13 29                                                                                                                                 Pvt... Elie1 ALALOF (c1895-1967) — of Salonica, GRC
I have pulled the best matches for CARASSO #164134 from the FTDNA, Ysearch, SMGF, and A-DNA databases and included them in the table above.  Not surprisingly, for those bearing the same surname, their genetic distances are consistent with having a common ancestor within genealogical time, while their overall common ancestor would presumably be back before the period of surname adoption, though not long before.  Given that at least some of these families are Jewish and have repeatedly fled persecution, it is also not unreasonable that some may connect within genealogical time despite having different surnames.  In other words, that the surname changes were deliberate and relatively recent.  DNA testing is particularly helpful in revealing such families as being related.
For an in-depth discussion of how to undertand what the results in this table mean, I recommend studying this page at my web site on "Signature Markers."  But, in a nutshell…
  • The marker values highlighted in cyan (pale blue table cells) are modal for Haplogroup R1b1*, so bearing these values is unremarkable, beyond the fact that the two markers in boldface support that they are R1b1*.
  • The markers highlighted in pale yellow are the "signature" markers for this group.  We would expect anyone related to them in genealogical time to share all or most of these values at these markers.
  • The single table cells highlighted in chartreuse, orange, bright cyan, and bright yellow represent "private" mutations, that is, mutations that have occurred in this individual's patrilineal line, downstream of their common ancestor.  As more people are tested, these "private" mutations may crop up in other individuals, at which point they become "branching" markers.
  • The mutations highlighted in dark blue, magenta, bright green, and deep purple are "branching" mutations, so-called because they usually indicate branches in the family tree downstream of the common ancestor.  Genealogically speaking, these can be the most valuable mutations in the family because they identify different lines in the family.
If you bear a private or branching mutation, it is important to test cousins (e.g., a 1st cousin, a 2nd cousin, a 3rd cousin, etc.), until you determine the generation and individual in whom the mutation first appeared.  This person then becomes a known fork in the family's DNA road.

The above discussion is tentative because not everyone has tested at least 37 markers.  Ultimately, to have a high degree of confidence in the relationships, everyone will need to upgrade to 67 markers — and it wouldn't hurt to test the SMGF markers, too (see markers to the right of the 67 standard markers).

Testing at SMGF is free, so there's no reason not to submit a sample to them.  The downside is that you will wait up to a year or more for results to return, they do not notify you when your results return or what they are, and they do not notify you of matches.  You just have to keep checking the database and doing searches until your own results appear.  There are no "Kit #'s" to identify your results. Because you must submit a minimal pedigree with your sample, you can use that pedigree to identify yourself in the database.  Your alternative is to pay for testing the nine SMGF markers from among the "Advanced" markers offered by FTDNA.  Unless cost is an obstacle, that's the way to go.
The GARZA tested at A-DNA is the uncle of the GARZA tested at FTDNA.
This diagrammatic "cladogram" represents the most parsimonius (shortest, simplest) path from a hypothesized common ancestor to the families represented above (except for the subjects tested to only 12 markers, which are just not enough markers to confidently place them in the tree).  Technically, everyone in a cladogram should have been tested to the same number of markers and, ideally, to 67 markers, rather than just 37 or less.

This tree is not the only possible tree, it is merely the simplest, most direct tree.  As such, it rests on my assumptions about the ancestral marker states, not to mention an underlying assumption that their resemblance is the result of common ancestry, not mere coincidence.  Deep SNP testing and the testing of more markers can remove the spectre of coincidence.

While it is possible that some of these families may have a common ancestor in genealogical time, their different surnames already make it likely their common ancestor existed before surname adoption.  It is also likely that the testing of more markers by more individuals will reveal more mutations, refining the tree, but pushing the common ancestor further back in time.  There does seem little doubt this ancestor was in Spain.

Mutations in boldface.

Common
Ancestor
DYS458 = 18
DYS449 = 28
Presumed
ancestral values
for these markers.
Intermediate
Ancestor
DYS458 = 18 > 19
DYS449 = 28
Hypothesized
because the GARZA, 
ALVAREZ, and
CARASSO share
this mutation.

Intermediate
Ancestor
DYS458 = 19
DYS449 = 28 > 29
Hypothesized because
the GARZA and
ALVAREZ share
this mutation.
GARZA
DYS458 = 19
DYS449 = 29
The GARZA has acquired two mutations in his descent from their hypothesized common ancestor.
ALVAREZ
DYS458 = 19 > 20
DYS449 = 29
The ALVAREZ has acquired three mutations in his descent from their hypothesized common ancestor.
DYS458 = 19
DYS449 = 28
CARASSO
DYS458 = 19
DYS449 = 28
DYS464c = 15 > 14
The CARASSO has acquired two mutations in his descent from their hypothesized common ancestor.
DYS458 = 18
DYS449 = 28
 
DYS458 = 18
DYS449 = 28
 
ARELLANO
DYS458 = 18
DYS449 = 28
DYS385b = 14 > 15
The ARELLANO has acquired one mutation in his descent from their hypothesized common ancestor.
DYS458 = 18
DYS449 = 28
 
LEVI
DYS458 = 18
DYS449 = 28
DYS447 = 27 > 26
The LEVI has acquired one
mutation in his descent from the
hypothesized common ancestor.

The return to the modal value of 26 at DYS447 appears to be a new back-mutation, not a retention of the modal state.

 
Modals for the standard 67 markers were compiled from the FTDNA R1b1* Project by DGM as of 6 Feb 2010
(sample size = 58 at 12 markers, 49 at 25 markers, 43 at 37 markers, and 22 at 67 markers).

Modals for the Advanced markers are those for Haplogroup R1b (Ysearch UserID C7BED) compiled by Ron Scott.

Keywords for search engines:
GRC, GR, Greece; Salonica = Salonika = Thessalonica = Thessaloniki
ESP, ES, Reina de España, Kingdom of Spain
USA, US, United States of America; TX = Texas; NM = New Mexico
MEX, MX, Mexico, México, Estados Unidos Mexicanos; TM = Tamaulipas; AG = Aguascalientes



What constitutes a match?
Matches in other surnames are usually mere coincidence, so please ignore them — I'll let you know when you shouldn't!
For 12 markers: 9 or less is a non-relative; for 10-12 markers, please see this table compiled by FTDNA.
For 25 markers: 21 or less is a non-relative; for 22-25 markers,
For 37 markers: 31 or less is a non-relative; for 32-37 markers,
For 67 markers: 59 or less is a non-relative; for 60-67 markers,
For 111 markers: 100 or less is a non-relative; for 101-111 markers,
For any test:  0 matching markers, please contact NASA.

Haplogroup R1b Subclades as Defined by SNP Mutations

An equal sign in the ISOGG column means the value is the same as FTDNA.
ISOGG has added so many new SNPs to their haplotree, it's no longer feasible to do a full comparison between the two in the same table.
All I can do here is supply the ISOGG label for clades in the current FTDNA tree; the many new SNPs shown only in the ISOGG tree are no longer included.
SNPs Standard
FTDNA ISOGG
M207=UTY2 P224 P227 P229 P232 P280 P285 | S4 S9 R =
  M173=P241 M306=S1 P231 P233 P234 P236 P238 P241 P242 P245 P286 P294 | P225 R-1 =
  M420=L146 M449=L145 M511=L63 M513=L62 M516=L120 R-1a =
M343 R-1b =
  P25 | L278 M415 P25_1 P25_2 P25_3 R-1b1 =
  P297 | L320 R-1b1a =
  M73 | M478 R-1b1a-1 =
M269 | L265 M520 S3 S10 S13 S17 R-1b1a-2 =
  L23=S141 | L49.1=S349 R-1b1a-2a =
  L150 R-1b1a-2a1 =
  L51=M412=S167  R-1b1a-2a1a =
  P310=S129 P311=S128 L11=S127 L151 L52  R-1b1a-2a1a-1 =
  U106=M405=S21 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a =
  U198=M467=S29 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a1 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5b-1
P107 [private] R-1b1a-2a1a-1a2  R-1b1a-2a1a-1a1
L1=S26 null439 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a3  R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5a-1
L48=S162 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a4 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5b-2
  L47=S170 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a4a R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5b-2a
  L163 L44=S171 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a4a-1 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5b-2a1
  L46=S172 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a4a-1a R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5b-2a1a
  L164 L237 L45 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a4a-1a1 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5b-2a1a-1
L148=S173 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a4b R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5b-2b1a-1a1a
L188 [private] R-1b1a-2a1a-1a4c R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5b-2b2a
L6 [private] R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a2
P89.2 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a6 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a5a-2
L217 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a7 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a3
L257=S186 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a8 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a4a-1a
L325 [private] R-1b1a-2a1a-1a9 R-1b1a-2a1a-1a4b
P312=S116 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b =
  M65 [private] R-1b1a-2a1a-1b1
M153 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b2 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b2a
U152=S28 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3
  M126 [private] R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3a =
M160 [private] R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3b =
L2=S139 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3c =
  L20=S144 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3c-1 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3c-1a
  M228.2 [private] R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3c-1a R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3c-1a1
L196 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3c-2 =
L4=S178 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3d R-1b1a-2a1a-1b3e-1
L21=M529=S145 | L459 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4 =
  M37 [private] R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4a =
M222=USP9Y+3636 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4b =
P66 | P66_1 P66_2 P66_3 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4c R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4c-1
L96 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4d
L144=S175 L195 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4e =
L159.2=S169.2 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4f =
L193=S176 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4g R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4c-2 
L226=S168 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4h R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4g-1
P314.2 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4i R-1b1a-2a1a-1b4h-1
L176.2-S179.2 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b5 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b2b
  SRY2627 | M167 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b5a R-1b1a-2a1a-1b2b-1
L165=S68 R-1b1a-2a1a-1b5b R-1b1a-2a1a-1b2b-2
M335 R-1b1b
V88 R-1b1c =
  M18 R-1b1c-1 =
L266 M124 P249 P267 R-2 R-2a
 

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