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Lineages and Results of Y-chromosome DNA Testing for Surname CARACO
Haplogroup L2a
Results
Hub
Y-DNA Haplogroups Represented in the Project
(sample size = number tested inside the project + number tested outside the project)
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I1d
(n=1)
J2a4
(n=1)
J2a4b
(n=24+1)
J2a4b1
(n=1)
L2a
(n=2)
R1b1*
(n=1+1)
R1b1a2
(n=6)
Haplogroup L descends from Haplogroup K and is believed to have first appeared about 30,000 years ago.  Because it is most common in southern and western Indian, Haplogroup L is sometimes called the "Indian Clan," although it is also found across central and southwestern Asia and thinly across southern Europe.  Marco Cagetti has an informative web site on Haplogroup L; and, of course, there is the Haplogroup L DNA Project run by Gareth Henson.  Haplogroup L is divided into three main subclades:  L1, L2, and L3.

L1 is the common subclade in India, while L3 has its highest concentration in Pakistan.  L2 is the predominant subclade for European Haplogroup L, although it is rare at only 1-3% of the population.  L2a is a subclade sometimes called "Mediterranean" because it occurs in southern Europe, from Portugal to Turkey, in the countries bordering the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.  One of our two subjects, who have an origin in Turkey, has been deep SNP tested (gratis by FTDNA) proving he is Haplogroup L2a.

Haplogroup L Subclades as Defined by SNP Mutations
Mutations Clades Main Region
M20, M11, M22, M61, M185, M295 L  
- M76, M27 L-1 India, Sri Lanka
M317 L-2 southern Europe, Anatolia
- M349 L-2a Mediterranean: Portugal to Turkey
M274 L-2b  
M357 L-3 Pakistani: Burusho and Pashtuns
- PK3 L-3a Pakistani: Kalash

To view more of the page without scrolling, temporarily reduce the text size or page size in your browser.  Red labels indicate markers that typically mutate more frequently than those labeled in black.  (Empty cells that are darkened indicate tests not ordered.)  Keywords for search engines: genetic genealogy.

Haplogroup L2a = L-M349
To view lineages, please scroll to the right.
Surname Kit # Ysearch
UserID

Most
Downstream
SNP
actually tested
Haplotype as determined by STR testing Known Lineage
Markers 1-12 Markers 13-25 Markers 26-37 Markers 38-67
3
9
3
3
9
0
19
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
a
|
3
8
5
b
|
3
8
5
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
i
|
3
8
9
3
9
2
ii
|
3
8
9
4
5
8
a
|
4
5
9
b
|
4
5
9
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
a
|
4
6
4
b
|
4
6
4
c
|
4
6
4
d
|
4
6
4
4
6
0
H4
|
G
A
T
A
IIa
|
Y
C
A
IIb
|
Y
C
A
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
a
|
C
D
Y
b
|
C
D
Y
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
a
|
S1
3
9
5
b
|
S1
3
9
5
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
S1
4
0
6
5
1
1
4
2
5
a
|
4
1
3
b
|
4
1
3
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
Haplogroup L-2a modals     12 23 14 10 16 18 11 12 11 14 13 30 16 9 9 11 12 25 16 19 30 15 15 17 18 10 10 19 21 15 14 18 14 31 33 11 10 11 8 15 15 7 11 9 8 12 9 13 20 20 14 11 12 12 14 8 11 24 23 13 11 11 14 10 11 12 11 Compiled by DGM from Hap-L project (n=17 at 12; n=9 at 37; n=7 at 67) as of 1 Jun 2008
Anatolian L2 individual PSU3S   12 23 14 10       12 13 14 14 30                                                                                                               Haplotype #318 (Cinnioglu 2003:141), subject of eastern Turkey
                 
CARACO 94500 ZVXAK   12 23 14 10 16 18 11 12 12 14 14 30 18 9 9 11 12 25 16 19 29 14 15 16 17 10 10 19 21 14 14 19 17 33 35 11 10                                                             Pvt4, Pvt3, Eliezer2, Albert1 of Bursa, Turkey [subject lives in the U.S.]
CARACO 119235 F3NKY M349 12 23 14 10 16 18 11 12 12 13 14 29 19 9 9 11 12 25 16 19 29 14 15 16 17 10 10 19 21 14 14 18 17 33 35 11 10                                                             Pvt5, Pvt4, Samuel3, Moïse2, Joseph1 of Bursa, Turkey [subject lives in France]
These individuals have a rare haplotype with no matches in the FTDNA or Ysearch databases closer than 10/12.  They have only a 6/9 or 8/9 match with the single L2 individual from Cinnioglu's 2003 paper on Anatolian haplogroups (see References at right) this individual is UserID PSU3S in the Ysearch database.  Based on their haplotype, their haplogroup is deduced to be L2a (thank you, Gareth Henson, for the determination).
Any change in DYS389i is reflected in DYS389ii because DYS389i is included in DYS389ii.  Therefore, in the case of our two test subjects, there is a mutation only in DYS389i, but none in DYS389ii, so the genetic difference (i.e., number of mutation events) separating these two individuals is only three, not four.
#94500 is a practicing Sephardic Jew, and he is one of only two Haplogroup L individuals to join the Sephardic Anusim DNA Project (as of 5/08).  Hirschman & Panther-Yates (see link under References, to the right) mention not one L2 in their paper on Sephardic haplogroups.
#119235 has received a gratis backbone SNP test from FTDNA.  The result of M20+ confirms that he is Haplogroup L; the result of M349+ confirms he is L2a.
References:

Cengiz Cinnioglu, et al.  2003.  "Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia."  Human Genetics 114: 127-148 (online at the web site of the Human Population Genetics Laboratory, Stanford University; n.b., the value for DYS389ii was converted to FTDNA standards using the Ysearch conversion chart).

Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman & Donald Panther-Yates. Toward a Sephardic Haplogroup Profile in the New World.  (unpublished Word doc online at DNA-Consultants)

 

What constitutes a match?
Matches in other surnames are usually mere coincidence, so please ignore them I'll let you know when you shouldn't!
For 12 markers: 9 or less is a non-relative; for 10-12 markers, please see this table compiled by FTDNA.
For 25 markers: 21 or less is a non-relative; for 22-25 markers,
For 37 markers: 31 or less is a non-relative; for 32-37 markers,
For 67 markers: 59 or less is a non-relative; for 60-67 markers,
For 111 markers: 100 or less is a non-relative; for 101-111 markers,
For any test:  0 matching markers, please contact NASA.

 
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