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Diana, Goddess of the Hunt for Ancestors!
 
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Node Chart for the Descendants of John Peter STROUP (1760s-1857) of Wythe Co., VA
and Anthony NEWHOUSE I (c1706-1762/3) of Philadelphia, PA
The STRAUB Y-chromosome DNA Surname Project has three members with paper descents from John Peter STROUP of Wythe Co., VA, each from a different son of John Peter.  Their test results do not remotely match, indicating they cannot possibly have a near common ancestor and, thus, that at least two of them have an NPE in their lineage.  It turns out that one of them (viz., #130123), the descendant of son John, matches descendants of Johann Pieter STRAUB I, the 1733 immigrant to Philadephia, so he's the genuine STROUP, while the others bear the NPEs.

The individual with the paper descent through son Jacob (viz., #34371) has a strong DNA match to members of a NEWHOUSE family (originally German NEUHAUS) tested for the NEWHOUSE Surname Project.  There is a place in this STROUPE individual's paper lineage that I had suspected was an adoption, even before these DNA test results returned.  Specifically, there is reason to believe Jacob Jackson STROUP was adopted and, in the chart below, I'm assuming that's where the NPE took place, though that assumption may not be correct.

The descendant through son, Peter (viz., #24073), has the M222+ SNP mutation making him the "Northwest Irish" subclade of R1b.  He has some near matches with surname DOHERTY/DOUGHERTY, and his ancestors have some nearby families of that surname in the censuses, so we may have found his true surname, though more work needs to be done to prove it.  Family Finder testing has narrowed down the possible generations where this NPE could have occurred.

With the testing of enough cousins, a genetic "tree" of a progenitor's descendants can be constructed showing where in each lineage mutations have occurred.  Such a tree can be extremely useful in proving (or debunking) paper genealogies.  The table below is a way of representing such a tree.  It is very much like the table I use to represent Haplogroup R1b.  Both tables are, in fact, representations of cladograms, like the Y-DNA cladogram.  I'm using tables, instead of graphical "trees" simply because the former are much easier to create and edit (I don't want to have to open a drawing program every time I work on them or upload a new JPG every time I've changed it).
Members of the NEWHOUSE project have generously shared their results and lineages.  These lineages show they have a common ancestor in Anthony NEWHOUSE I of Philadelphia, PA.  Not insignificantly, one of Anthony's sons, namely Isaac NEWHOUSE I, moved to Virginia, first to Fauquier County, then to Wythe County where, in 1795, he bought land adjacent to a STROUP!  This STROUP has to be John Peter STROUP as the only STROUP known to be in Wythe County who was old enough to be owning land at the time.
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Generation Remarks
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Johann
Pieter
STRAUB I
Hg I1-L592
unknown John
Peter
STROUP
Peter
STROUP
Catharine
(STROUP)
CLARK
Mary Jane
(CLARK)
STROUP
John
Franklin
STROUP
STROUP
#24073
      This individual has two lines to Peter STROUP, one through his paternal grandfather, George Victor STROUP, and one through his paternal grandmother, Mary Jane (CLARK) STROUP.  Y-DNA testing revealed an NPE on his patrilineal line, but his aDNA match with other descendants of Samuel Patton indicates his line through Mary Jane is good.
Samuel
Patton
STROUP
George
Victor
STROUP
John
Franklin
STROUP
STROUP
#24073
Hg R-M222
     
George
William
STROUP
         
Catharine
Jane
STROUP
Andrew J.
STROUPES
Frances
(STROUP)
SHAW
James Earl
SHAW
Pvt
SHAW
Pvt
(SHAW)
HENDRIXON
This individual is a FamilyFinder match with two descendants of immigrant Johann Pieter STRAUB, which means the STRAUB-STROUP line was not broken in her and that the NPE for #24073 happened downstream of Samuel PATTON.
William
STROUP
           
James J.
STROUP
         
Russell
STROUP
           
John
STROUP
Andrew
STROUP
Charles H.
STROUP
William
Henry
STROUP
Sidney
Crockett
STROUP
Pvt
STROUPE
 STROUPE
#130123
DYS406-S1 9 > 10
  This individual has accumulated one
mutation in his descent from John Peter.
George
STROUP
               
Jacob
STROUP
no issue
Jacob Jackson
STROUP
John Jacob
STROUP
          If Jacob Jackson was the adopted son in this lineage, we would expect descendants on all three of these lines to match #34371, with at most a difference of one or two mutations.
William
STROUP
Lee Hulbert
STROUP
       
Frank B.
STROUP
       
William Henry
STROUPE
Pvt
STROUPE
STROUPE
#34371
    This individual has a 37/37 match with the modal haplotype of descendants of Anthony NEWHOUSE I. 
Anthony
NEWHOUSE
I
Hg R-1b1b-2
Isaac
NEWHOUSE
I
Isaac
NEWHOUSE II
John
NEWHOUSE
John M.
NEWHOUSE
William Thomas
NEWHOUSE I
William Thomas
NEWHOUSE II
Noah Franklin
NEWHOUSE
NEWHOUSE
#48567
        This (now deceased) individual bears the modal haplotype for this NEWHOUSE family. Like the above STROUPE, he has acquired no mutations in his descent from Anthony NEWHOUSE I.
Peter Miller
NEWHOUSE
DYS391
11 > 12
James Marshall
NEWHOUSE
Pvt
NEWHOUSE
NEWHOUSE
#58672
DYS447
25 > 26
        Because mutations are rare, I've tried to separate this line's two mutations by as many generations as possible, but in fact we do not know when the mutations occurred or even which mutation occurred first, except that neither could have occurred before Peter Miller.
David
NEWHOUSE
DYS439 
13 > 14
Isaac
NEWHOUSE
Isaac L.
NEWHOUSE
William Hanson
NEWHOUSE
Daniel Winter
NEWHOUSE
Pvt
NEWHOUSE
NEWHOUSE
#54118
DYS460
10 > 11
    This individual bears a
mutation not possessed
by the other two 
descendants of David.
We don't know in which
generation it occurred,
but it was after David.
These three lines bear a mutation not possessed by the other three lines.  The earliest common ancestor on these three lines is David, so the mutation must have occurred with him. Please note that there is an alternate explanation: Anthony I may have been DYS439=14, and it is Isaac I who bears a mutation from 14 to 13 at DYS439.  I have arbitrarily selected 14 as the derived condition because 13 is closer to the modal value for R-1b1b-2, which is 12, and is, thus, possibly ancestral.  We'll know for certain which is the case after we test someone who descends from Anthony I through either son Jonathan or son Jacob.
Anthony
NEWHOUSE
William
NEWHOUSE
Joseph
NEWHOUSE
John Lafayette
NEWHOUSE
Pvt
NEWHOUSE
NEWHOUSE
#36476
     
Samuel
NEWHOUSE
Alexander
NEWHOUSE
William Newton
NEWHOUSE
Pvt
NEWHOUSE
NEWHOUSE
#46428
     
Jonathan
NEWHOUSE
                  The highest testing priority here is for patrilineal descendants of Jonathan and Jacob, to see whether they match Isaac or David and, thus, to determine which of them has the actual mutation at DYS439.
Jacob
NEWHOUSE
                 
A change in the color of a row indicates a mutation has appeared (the mutation itself is in red boldface text).

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