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Diana, Goddess of the Hunt for Ancestors!
 
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James Monroe JACKSON
Susan STROUP
Jane L. MATHEWS
WARNING:  I have many misgivings about this family group sheet.  It not only may be that two James JACKSONs are being confused, but that two Susan STROUPs are being confused.
Husband:  James Monroe JACKSON
Birth (from censuses):  1831-35, TN  {1850: 18, TN; 1860: 25, TN; 1870: 36, TN}
Birth (from tombstone):  31 Aug 1830
Death (from tombstone):  25 May 1876
Disposition:  buried DeSoto, Jefferson Co., MO
Occupation:  farmer
Father:  Benjamin JACKSON
Mother:  Ms. __?__

Of the sources for the birthdate, the tombstone is the least likely to be accurate; and given that James has a brother born on 9 Aug 1830, that's another reason to doubt the tombstone.

Marriage-1:  7 Oct 1852, Jefferson Co., MO ended in divorce?/annulment?
Wife-1:  Susan STROUP
Birth:  1834/5, Joachim Twp., Jefferson Co., MO
Death:  aft. 1870
Occupation:  homemaker
Father:  John STROUP
Mother:  Elizabeth FLEMING

In the 1860 census, Susan is living with her widowed father, John STROUP; and, in the 1870 census, she is living with three of her unmarried siblings.  In both censuses, she is enumerated as Susan STROUP and has no children.  I would take James's wife to be a different Susan STROUP, but their marriage license is said to name her father as John STROUP, and the only Susan STROUP in the 1850 census of Jefferson County is the 15-yr-old daughter of John & Elizabeth (FLEMING) STROUP.  Was Susan possibly infertile making that the basis for an annulment?

Marriage-2:  9 Apr 1860, Jefferson Co., MO
Wife-2:  Jane L. MATHEWS
Birth:  1833/4, MO
Occupation:  homemaker
Disposition:  buried DeSoto, Jefferson Co., MO
Children with Susan STROUP:
-
Children with Jane MATHEWS:
1.  John Aaron JACKSON, b. 1860/1
2.  Abraham JACKSON, b. 1862/3
3.  Mary J. JACKSON, b. 1864/5
4.  Sarah A. JACKSON, b. 1866/7
5.  James JACKSON, b. April 1870
Keywords for search engines:  genealogy; USA, US, United States, Missouri, Tenn., Tennessee

Sources:

1.  Jordan R. Dodd, ed.  1998.  Marriage Index: Missouri, 1851-1900.  Liahona Research, Orem, UT (Broderbund CD-234):
Jackson, James M. Stroup, Susan 7 Oct 1852 Jefferson Co.
Jackson, James Mathews, Jane 9 Apr 1860 Jefferson Co.

2.  1850 Census Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #135 of 153):  District No. 42, Jefferson Co., MO, p. 474A, 999/999, enumerated 23 Oct 1850, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1850 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
William Jackson 20 M   Farmer 150 Tenn
Martha     " 21 F       Tenn
James      " 18 M       Tenn
Melvina    " 16 F       Mo
Emily      " 13 F       Mo
George     " 11 M       Mo
Lucinda    "  9 F       Mo
Lucinda Evans 66 F       Va

3.  1860 Census Index/Images (online at Genealogy.com, Image #18 of 59):  Avoca P.O., Valle Twp., Jefferson Co., MO, Roll 626 (Book 1), p. 502, PN 34, 131/131, enumerated 8 Sep 1860, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1860 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
James Jackson 25 M   Farmer   50 Tennessee
Jane     " 26 F         Missouri

4.  1870 Census Index/Images (online at Genealogy.com, Image #12 of 46):  Hillsboro P.O., Central Twp., Jefferson Co., MO, Roll 783 (Book 1), p. 226B, PN 12, 84/89, enumerated 11 Jul 1870, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1870 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
Jackson James 36 M W Farmer   500 Tennessee  
_______ Jane 32 F W Keeps House     Missouri  
_______ John  9 M W At Home     do  
_______ Abraham  7 M W do     do  
_______ Mary  5 F W do     do  
_______ Sarah  3 F W do     do  
_______ James 2/12 M W do     do April

5.  1880 Census (indexed at FamilySearch.org; page image online at Ancestry.com, Image #28 of 42):  Lewis Street, De Soto, Jefferson Co., MO, Roll T9-0695, p. 14D, PN 28, SD 1, ED 189, enumerated 1 Jun 1880, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1880 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
1880:  for an explanation of the column headings, please see
What the Numbers in the Federal Census Mean (missing columns contained no data).
1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 13 21 24 25 26
233 260 Jackson Jane W F 43     / Keeping House   KY PA KY
    _______ Aaron W M 19 Son /   works in Machine Shop   MO TN KY
    _______ Mary J W F 14 Dau /   at home / MO TN KY
    _______ Sarah A W F 12 Dau /   at home / MO TN KY
    _______ James W M 10 Son /     / MO TN KY

6.  Messages posted to the Jefferson County, Missouri, Board (online at Ancestry.com).  See especially messages posted by Mary Miller.

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