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Benjamin D. THAXTON
Malinda L. GAULDING
Ms. __?__
Husband:  Benjamin D. THAXTON
Birth:  13 Feb 1795, Prince Edward Co., VA
Death:  17 Jan 1862, Mercer Co., MO
Disposition:  buried Middlebury Cemetery, Mercer Co., MO
Military Service:  War of 1812:  Cpl., Capt. Woodson's Co. and Capt. Pennick's Co., VA Militia
Father:  John THAXTON
Mother:  Nancy WILKERSON
Marriage:  1820-24
Wife:  Malinda L. GAULDING
Birth:  6 Jul 1805, Prince Edward Co., VA
Death:  18 May 1886, Mercer Co., MO
Disposition:  buried Middlebury Cemetery, Mercer Co., MO 
Father:  Jacob GAULDING
Mother:  Ms. ANDERSON
Liaison:
Partner:  Ms. __?__ [Thaxton slave]
Children with Malinda GAULDING born in Prince Edward Co., VA:
1.  Angeline T. "Ann" THAXTON, b. 1825 
2.  David THAXTON; d. bef. 1862
3.  James THAXTON; d. bef. 1862
4.  Marcus A. "Mark" THAXTON, b. 1828/9 
5.  Caroline L. THAXTON, b. 1836/7
Child with slave born in Livingston [now Mercer] Co., MO:
6.  Clementine V. THAXTON, b. 1843; d. Aug 1914, Grundy Co., MO; never married, but had daughter, Vernettie THAXTON, b. 1864/5, MO
Keywords for search engines:  genealogy; USA, US, United States, Missouri, Virginia

Sources:

1.  Family Group Sheet by Betty Ann (Matthiesen) Cogliati and her late grandmother, Maude Irene (Thompson) Rose.

2.  Marriage Record:

3.  1810 U.S. Census Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com):  there is space for Benjamin in the household of his alleged father, John THAXTON, in Prince Edward Co., VA (q.v.)

4.  1820 U.S. Census Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com):  the Benjamin THAXTON in Prince Edward Co., VA, is too old to be our subject.  He's not living with his alleged parents, but is old enough to be working out.

5.  1830 U.S. Census Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #27-28 of 74; extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
1830 VA Prince Edward Co. pp. 110B-111A Benjn D Thackston 010 111 000 - 100 010 100 011 000 - 110 000
These data indicate:
No., Race, Gender Age Class Therefore Born Individuals Inferred
1 white male 5-9 1820-1825 = David? James?
1 white male 15-19 1810-1815 = sibling?
1 white male 20-29 1800-1810 = sibling?
1 white male 30-39 1790-1800 = Benjamin (b. 1795) 
1 white female 4 or under 1825-1830 = Angeline (b. 1825)
1 white female 20-29 1800-1810 = Malinda (b. 1805)
1 white female 40-49 1780-1790 = mother? mother-in-law?
1 male slave 10-23 1806-1820 = ?
1 male slave 24-35 1794-1806 = ?
1 female slave 9 or under 1820-1830 = ?
1 female slave 10-23 1806-1820 = ?
Benjamin's father has died, so the eldest woman may be his widowed mother.

6.  1840 Census Index and Digital Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #4-5 of 8; extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen).  Indexed as being in Jackson Twp., but it says Franklin Twp. on the page.  Note that the number pages precede the name pages.¤
1840 MO Livingston [then Grundy, now Mercer] Co. Franklin Twp. Roll 225 pp. 274A-274B Ln. 1 Benjamin Thaxton 101 030 100 - 100 101 000 210100-110000 no occupations, for anyone
These data indicate:
No. & Sex Age Class Therefore Born Individuals Inferred
1 white male 4 or under 1835-1840 = David? James?
1 white male 10-14 1825-1830 = Mark (b. 1828/9)
3 white males 20-29 1810-1820 = ? ? ?
1 white male 40-49 1790-1800 = Benjamin (b. 1795) 
1 white female 4 or under 1835-1840 = Caroline (b. 1836/7)
1 white female 15-19 1820-1825 = Angeline (b. 1825)
1 white female 30-39 1800-1810 = Malinda (b. 1805)
2 male slaves 9 or under 1830-1840 = ? ?
1 male slave 24-35 1804-1816 = ?
1 male slave 36-54 1785-1804 = ?
1 female slave 9 or under 1830-1840 = ?
1 female slave 10-23 1816-1830 = ?
Malinda is too young to have had three children by 1820, but Benjamin is not.  Did Benjamin have an earlier wife?  Listed two lines from Royal WILLIAMS, whose wife is Malinda's sister.

7a.  1850 Census Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #27 of 66):  District 56, Mercer Co., MO, p. 386A, 173/173, enumerated 26 Aug 1850, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1850 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
Benjamin Thaxton 55 M   Farmer 500 Virginia
Malinda 45 F       do
Caroline 17 F       do
Clementine  6 F       Mo
Listed next to their daughter, Angeline, and her husband, James H. THOMPSON.  Various indexes have this record indexed as Thanton or Thonton, and it does look like either one, so I'll easily grant you'd have to know it was Thaxton to see it as Thaxton. 

7b.  1850 Census Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #65 of 69):  Dist. No. 35, Grundy Co., MO, p. 418A, 444/444, enumerated 17 Oct 1850, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1850 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
M.A. Thaxton 21 M   Sch'l Teacher   Va
He is one of eight residents in a small hotel.

7c.  1850 Slave Schedule Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #1 of 1; missing columns contained no data):  District 56, Mercer Co., MO, p. 649, enumerated 25 Aug 1850 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen)
Names
of
Slave Owners
Number
of
Slaves
Description
Age Sex Colour
B. D. Thaxton 1 56 M blk
  2 34 F blk
  3 18 M blk
  4 15 M blk
  5 10 M blk
  6 8 M blk
  7 5 M blk
There are only six slaveowners in District 56, and Benjamin is the largest.  (Royal WILLIAMS is one of the other five slaveholders.)

8a.  1860 Census Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #14 of 14):  Middlebury P.O., Washington Twp., Mercer Co., MO, p. 200, PN 100, 726/726, enumerated 19 Jun 1860, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1860 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
B.D. Thaxton 66 M   Farmer 4000 8000 Virginia
M.L.       " 55 F         "
Clementine " 17 F         Missouri
Listed next to their widowed daughter, Angeline (THAXTON) THOMPSON

8b.  1860 Slave Schedule Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #1 of 1; missing columns contained no data):  Various Townships, Mercer Co., MO, p. 80A, PN 1, enumerated 1 Jun 1860, (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
Names
of
Slave Owners
Number
of
Slaves
Description
Age Sex Colour
B.D. Thaxton 1 47 F B
  1 24 M B
  1 18 M B
  1 15 M B
  1  5 F B
There were only 12 slaveholders in the county, and Benjamin and Royal WILLIAMS were two of them.

9.  1870 Census Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #281 of 301):  Goshen City, Washington Twp., Mercer Co., MO, p. 208A, PN 1, 3/3, enumerated 26 Jul 1870, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1870 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
Thaxton, Merlinda 65 F W Keeping House   50 Virginia
_______, Temantine 26 F W       Missouri

10a.  1880 United States Census and National Index (LDS Family History Resource File: CD-ROM Library):  mis-indexed THOSETON.

10b.  1880 Census Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #2 of 27):  Washington Twp., Mercer Co., MO, p. 138B, PN 2, SD 7, ED 231, enumerated 1 Jun 1880, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1880 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
1880:  for an explanation of the column headings, please see
What the Numbers in the Federal Census Mean (missing columns contained no data).
1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 13 22 23 24 25 26
26 26 Thaxton Marinda W? F 76     / Keeping House / / VA VA VA
    _______ Clementine MU F 37 Daughter /   at Home     MO VA VA
    _______ Vernettie MU F 15 Granddaughter /   at Home     MO AR MO
In point of fact, I cannot read the letter in Column 4 for Malinda.  It definitely isn't B or MU, but it doesn't look exactly like a W, either.

11.  Betty Cogliati sent me a photocopy of a page of what appear to be will abstracts of Mercer Co., MO (if anyone knows the full citation for this source, please let me know what it is).  On p. 88:
THAXTON, BENJAMIN D., died intestate.  Admr., Marcus A. Thaxton.  Sec., William Fitzpatrick, Armand L. Wynn & John A.C. Thompson.  Affidavit of admr. says heirs of decd are:  Angeline A. Thompson, late Angeline A. Thaxton, Marcus A. Thaxton, and Clementine V. Thaxton, residents of Mercer Co., Mo., and Caroline L. Shook, late Caroline L. Thaxton, residing in Livingston Co., Mo.  Probable amount of personal property is $3000.  31 Mar 1862.  (A196-198)
It's more than a little odd that Benjamin's wife, Malinda (Gaulding) Thaxton, is not mentioned.  Marcus, Angeline, Clementine, and Caroline are Benjamin's children.  Armand Wynn and John A.C. Thompson are both husbands of daughters of Delilah (Gaulding) Williams, sister of Malinda (Gaulding) Thaxton.  Angeline (Thaxton) Thompson was married to James Henry Thompson, who was a brother of John A.C.  I have no idea where William Fitzpatrick fits in.

11a.  Mrs. B.F. Hoove & Mrs. D. Hesler.  1965. Middlebury Cemetery, Mercer County, MO (online at the Mercer Co. MOGenWeb site):
THAXTON B.D. ___________ 17 Jan 1862 66y 11m 4d
  Malinda   18 May 1886 80y 10m 12d; w/o B.D.
  Milton C.   1848?  
Thaxton slave Aunt Liza      
  Ben      
  Mary      
  Hannah      

11b.  Birthdate calculated using Ben Buckner's JavaScript Birthday Calculator.
Entered Result
17 Jan 1862  4d 11m 77y 19 Feb 1795
18 May 1886 12d 10m 80y  6 Jul 1805

12.  Mrs. B.F. Hoover & Mrs. Delbert Hesler.  1965. Tombstone List: Maple Grove Cemetery, Trenton, Grundy Co., MO (online at the Grundy County MOGenWeb site):
THAXTON Clementine ___ Aug 1914 72y

13.  War of 1812 Pension Application Files Index, 1812-1815 (online at Ancestry.com):
NUMBERS SOLDIER Thaxton, Benjamin D.
Wid. Orig. 22513 WIDOWThaxton, Malinda L.
Wid Ctl. 26419 SERVICE Corpl., Capt. Anthony Woodson's Co. Va. Mil.
  & Capt. Josiah Pennick's Co. Va. Mil.

14.  Broderbund.  World Family Trees.  Vol. 1, Pedigree Nos. 1943 & 1944.

15.  Web Site of William Gaulding. [link died]

16.  Emails from William Gaulding and Thomas A. Gauldin.

17.  Archives of the TThompson Mailing List.

18.  Public Member Trees (online at Ancestry.com).

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