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Bernard STROUP
Note:  a female descendant of our subject has taken the FTDNA FamilyFinder autosomal-DNA test, and she is a match for the Hg I1-L592 descendants of Johann Pieter STRAUB, 1733 immigrant to Philadelphia (see comparison).  Of course, it's not a certainty that the aDNA match was in their STROUP lines.  We need a male patrilineal line descendant of Bernard to be Y-DNA tested.
Husband:  Bernard "Barney" STROUP
Birth:  1798/1799/1800/1801, PA
Death:  aft. 1860 census
Disposition:  buried in Martinsburg, Blair Co., PA
Occupation:  stone cutter
Wife-1:  Jane ENGLISH
Birth:  1798
Death:  1845
Disposition:  buried in Martinsburg, Blair Co., PA
Marriage-2:  1846
Wife-2:  Nancy McGREGOR
Birth:  1795/1796/1799/1800, PA
Death:  aft. 1860 census
Disposition:  buried in Martinsburg, Blair Co., PA
Children with Jane ENGLISH:
born in PA:
  1.  Eli STROUP, b. 1820 
  2.  David STROUP, b, 1821/2 
  3.  Robert STROUP, b. 1824 
  4.  William STROUP, b. 1825/6
  5.  (Son A) STROUP, b. 1825-30

born in Huntingdon/Bedford [now Blair] Co., PA:
  6.  (Son B) STROUP, b. 1830-35
  7.  (Son C) STROUP, b. 1830-35
  8.  James M. STROUP, b. 1834/5
  9.  Peter STROUP, b. 1836/7
10.  Samuel STROUP, b. 1837
11.  Mary J. STROUP, b. 1838-41
12.  Nancy Ann STROUP, b. 1840-43; m. 14 Dec 1864, Marion Co., IL, George Harvey BEALE (b. 1840, Juniata Co., PA); lived Baxter Springs, KS
13.  Sarah STROUP, b. 1844; m. Mr. McGRAW

Peter was living in the household in the 1860 census, but not in the 1850 or 1840 censuses, which is hard to explain.  James was not living in the household in 1850, though he did not marry til ca. 1858.  Are James and Peter really their sons?  Secondary sources say, yes.

Children with Nancy McGREGOR:
Keywords for search engines:  genealogy; USA, US, United States, Kansas, Illinois, Pennsylvania

Sources (n.b., Bedford Co. was formed in 1771 from Cumberland Co.; Huntingdon Co. was formed in 1787 from Bedford Co.; Blair Co. was formed in 1846 from Bedford and Huntingdon Cos.):

1.  Marriage Record:

2.  Census Index:  U.S. Selected Counties, 1820 (Broderbund CD-314):  not found.

3.  1830 Census Index and Digital Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #11 of 22; extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
1830 PA Huntingdon [now Blair] Co. Woodbury p. 164 Ln. 10 Barney Stroup 230 001 - 000 001
These data indicate:
No. & Sex  Age Class Therefore Born Individuals Inferred
2 males 4 or under 1825-1830 = Son A
= William (b. 1825/6)
3 males 5-9 1820-1825 = Robert (b. 1824)
= David (b. 1821/2)
= Eli (b. 1820)
1 male 30-39 1790-1800 = Bernard (b. 1798/9)
1 female 30-39 1790-1800 = Jane (b. 1798)

4.  1840 Census Index and Digital Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #11 of 20; extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
1840 PA Bedford [now Blair] Co. North Woodberry p. 351B-352A Ln. 6 Stroup Bernard 132 301 - 100 101 _______
These data indicate:
No. & Sex Age Class Therefore Born Individuals Inferred
1 male 4 or under 1835-1840 = Samuel (b. 1837)
3 male 5-9 1830-1835 = James (b. ca. 1834)
= Son C
= Son B
2 male 10-14 1825-1830 = Son A
= William (b. 1825/6)
3 male 15-19 1820-1825 = Robert (b. 1824)
= David (b. 1821/2)
= Eli (b. 1820)
1 male 30-39 1800-1810 = Bernard (b. 1798/9)
1 female 4 or under 1835-1840 = Mary (b. 1838/9)
1 female 15-19 1820-1825 = ?
1 female 30-39 1800-1810 = Jane (b. 1798) 
Both Bernard and Jane are listed in the wrong age class, but there's little doubt these are our subjects.  The older girl did not appear in the 1830 Census, so she would not appear to be their daughter, though I suppose it's possible she was missed by the census-taker in 1830.  Certainly, with ten males in the house and a baby daughter, Jane would have need some female hired help!  Listed one line above Shem GRAYBILL, in one direction; in the other direction, three lines down from John GRAYBILL, who is two lines below Joel GRAYBILL.

5.  1850 Census Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #108 of 350):  North Woodberry Twp., Blair Co., PA, p. 55A, 17/17, enumerated 14 Aug 1850 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
Barney Stroup 51 M Farmer $9,800 Penna
Nancy Stroup 54 F     "
Saml Stroup 13 M     "
Mary Stroup 11 F     "
Nancy Stroup  9 F     "
Sarah Stroup  6 F     "
Where are Peter and James?  James did not marry until ca. 1858, so he should still be at home.  Is he really their son?  Listed next to Michael GRAYBILL (æ 43, b. PA, wife Sarah), who is listed two households from Shem GRAYBILL, in one direction; in the other direction, listed three households from William STROUP, who would appear to be their son.

6.  1860 Census Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #497 of 712):  Taylor Twp., Blair Co., PA, p. 497, PN 42, 283/283, enumerated 12 Jun 1860 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
Bernard Stroup 59 M   Farmer 23,400 3000 Penna
Nancy     " 60 F         "
Peter     " 23 M   Farm Laborer     "
Samuel    " 22 M         "
Mary J.   " 18 F         "
Ann       " 17 F         "
Sarah     " 15 F         "
Peter was not living with the family in either the 1850 or 1840 census, so he would not seem to be their son; yet, his placement on this entry says he is.

7.  1870 Census Index/Images (online at Genealogy.com):  not found.

8.  1880 United States Census and National Index (LDS Family History Resource File: CD-ROM Library):  not found.

9.  LDS.  Family Search: Internet Genealogy Service:  AF - Ancestral File (online at FamilySearch.org).

10.  Messages posted to the STROUP Surname Board (online at Ancestry.com), including these items:
from "Who's Who in the Early Records" in the publication "The People of Mifflin County, 1755 - 1798," a David Stroup appears in the records with the following taxable assets: a house worth $106, log, 1 story, 1 window with 4 panes, 22 x 18 with a springhouse.

From the publication "Mifflin County Obituaries," David Stroup of Union Township died 5-24-1850, age 94.

In "History of Westmorland Co." it tells about Sarah E. Stroup married to Mr. McGraw.  Sarah was Bernard Stroup's daughter and it tells that Bernard was the son of David Stroup.
I rather doubt that Bernard was David's son.  David appears to have lived his entire life in Mifflin County, while Bernard lived his in Blair County.  There is also some tentative aDNA evidence suggesting Bernard is related to the Hg I1-L592 STRAUBs, while an individual decended from David's alleged son, John, is Hg R-M269 in other words, they're not remotely related.  Further testing can give us the answer.

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