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Andreas STRAUB I
Anna Catharina SPRINGER
Husband:  Andreas/Andrew STRAUB
Birth:  in or bef. 1726, some say southern Germany, near the border; some say northern Switzerland, near the border
Death:  Lancaster Co., PA
Migration:  1742, from Rotterdam to Cowes to Philadelphia on the brigantine Mary
Oath of Allegiance:  25 Aug 1742, Philadelphia Courthouse
Residence:  farm near Columbia, Hempfield Twp., Lancaster Co., PA
Religion:  Catholic
Father:  Johannes STRAUB, s/o Johann Jacobus STRAUB & Agate ANGSTENBERG
Mother:  C. RAMSTRAGHER?
Marriage:  bef. 1748, Pennsylvania
Wife:  Anna Catharina SPRINGER
Birth:  bef. 1730
Religion:  Lutheran
Children presumably born in Hempfield Twp., Lancaster Co., PA:
1.  Andrew STRAUB II, b. 14 Feb 1748; bap. Apr 1748, Trinity Lutheran; m. Mary Eveline WALTER 
2.  Valentine STRAUB, b. 18 Oct 1749; bap. 16 Apr 1850, Trinity Lutheran; m. Elizabeth REIHM 
3?  Johannes STRAUB, b. ca. 1755; m. Maria __?__ 
4.  Anna Maria STRAUB, b. 8 Jan 1759; m. Christian MARKLE/MERKEL 
5.  Maria Eva STRAUB, b. 23 Jan 1766; bap. 18 May 1766, Trinity Lutheran; m. Joseph HOUGENDOBLER 

Virtually all secondary sources (including Floyd, 1911; see below) accept Anna Maria as a daughter of Andreas & Anna Catharina, though I have yet to find a primary source linking Anna to these parents.  A son of Anna Maria (STRAUB) MARKLE married a HOUGENDOBLER, and a daughter married a FOLLMER.  A son of Andrew STRAUB II also married a FOLLMER.

In the 1790 census, Anna Maria (STRAUB) MARKLE is living in Richmond Twp., Berks Co., PA.  Also living in Richmond Twp. in 1790 is Johannes STRAUB, who is listed next to Widow MERKEL, who is two lines from Casper MERKEL.  Is Johannes a brother of Anna Maria?  It certainly appears that he may be.

Keywords for search engines:  genealogy; FRG, DEU, Deutschland; Schweiz; USA, US, United States, Pennsylvania

Timeline
Year Location Event
bef. 1726 Germany? birth of Andreas Straub
bef. 1730 ? birth of Anna Catharina __?__
1742 Rotterdam > Cowes > Philadelphia Andreas Straube on the brigantine Mary
1742-8 PA marriage of Andreas Straub & Anna Catharina __?__
1748 PA: Lancaster Co.: Lancaster baptism of son, Andrew
1750 PA: Lancaster Co.: Lancaster baptism of son, Valentine
1756 PA: Lancaster Co.: Hempfield Twp. "Andw. Strout" on the tax rolls
1759   birth of daugher, Anna Maria
1766 PA: Lancaster Co.: Lancaster baptism of daughter, Maria Eva
1780 Tax List PA: Lancaster Co.: Hempfield Twp. "Andreas Strout" on the tax rolls [is this our subject or his son?]
1787   marriage of son, Andrew, to Mary Eveline Walter

Sources:

I realize some of these sources are highly repetitive.  I include them so you won't waste your time tracking them down, only to find they contain nothing new.  Only males age 16 years or over were included on the ship's passage lists.  There is no proof that the Andreas/Andrew who arrived in 1742 is the one who settled in Lancaster Co., but it is very likely.  This Andreas/Andrew STRAUB is the only one for whom a record has been found who arrived early enough to be our subject.

1a.  Israel Daniel Rupp.  1876.  A Collection of upwards of Thirty Thousand Names of German, Swiss, Dutch, French, and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1727 to 1776... Leary, Stuart, & Co., Philadelphia, PA (reprinted 1965/75 by Genealogical Publ. Co., Baltimore, MD; Broderbund CD-267).
p. 153 Aug. 25, 1742.  Foreigners imported in the brigantine Mary, John Mason, Master, from Rotterdam, last from Cowes...
Andreas Straub...

1b.  Israel Daniel Rupp.  1931.  A Collection of Upwards of Thirty Thousand Names of German, Swiss, Dutch, French and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1727 to 1776, with a Statement of the Names of Ships, Whence They Sailed, and the Date of Their Arrival at Philadelphia, Chronologically Arranged, Together with the Necessary Historical and Other Notes.  Degener & Co., Leipzig, Germany (a revised, enlarged edition of the original 1876 work; 1985, Genealogical Publ. Co., Baltimore; 1998, Broderbund CD-354).
p. 153 Andreas Straub, Philadelphia, 1742.

2a.  William Henry Egle, ed.  1890.  Pennsylvania Archives:  Names of Foreigners Who Took the Oath of Allegiance to the Province and State of Pennsylvania, 1727-1775, with the Foreign Arrivals, 1786-1808.  Ser. 2, Vol. 17.  E.K. Meyers, Harrisburg, PA (1967, Genealogical Publ. Co., Baltimore; 1998, Broderbund CD-354).
p. 227 Andreas Straub, Pennsylvania, 1742.

2b.  William Henry Egle.  1890.  Names of Foreigners Who Took the Oath of Allegiance to the Province and State of Pennsylvania, 1727-1775, with the Foreign Arrivals, 1786-1808.  Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. XVII, 2nd Ser., Harrisburg, PA (reprinted 1967/94, Genealogical Publ. Co., Baltimore, MD; Broderbund CD-267):
p. 227 List of Foreigners Imported in the Brigatine (sic) Mary, John Mason, Master, from Roterdam.  Qualified Aug. 25, 1742...
Andreas Straub...

3a.  Ralph Beaver Strassburger.  1934.  Pennsylvania German Pioneers.  Pennsylvania German Society, Norristown, PA (online at Ancestry.com):
List 92 C; at the Courthouse Philada, Augt 25th 1742; the Foreigners whose Names are underwritten, imported in the Brigt Mary, John Mason, Master, from Rotterdam, but last from Cowes, did this day take the usual Oaths or Qualifications to the Government, viz... Andreas STRAUB.

3b.  Ralph Beaver Strassburger.  1934.  Pennsylvania German Pioneers: a Publication of the Original Lists of Arrivals in the Port of Philadelphia, from 1727 to 1808.  Pennsylvania German Society, Norristown, PA (reprinted 1966/92 Genealogical Publ Co., Baltimore, MD; Broderbund CD-267).
p. 322 [List 92 C] At the Courthouse Philada, Augt 25th 1742.
  Present: Clement Plumsted, Esqr. Mayor.
           Robert Strettell,|
           William Till,    | Esqrs.
           Abraham Taylor   |
  The Foreigners whose Names are underwritten, imported in the Brigt Mary, John Mason, Master, from Rotterdam, but last from Cowes, did this day take the usual Oaths of Qualifications to the Government...
Andereas (XX) Straub...

4.   Karl Ehmann.  1977.  Die Auswanderung in die Neuengland-Staaten aus Orten des Enzkreises im 18. Jahrhundert.  Suedwestdeutsche Blaetter fuer Familien- und Wappenkunde, special supplement (1998,  Broderbund CD-354).  On p. 36:
Andreas Straub, America, 1742.

5a.   Pennsylvania German Society.  1983.  Pennsylvania German Church Records: Birth and Baptismal Register of Trinity Lutheran Church, Lancaster, Pa.  Genealogical Publ. Co., Baltimore, MD (1996, Broderbund CD-130).  On p. 12:
p. 4 1748 Andreas Straub, s. Andreas and Catharina; b. February; bap. April 24.
p. 12 1750 Valentin STRAUBE, s. Andreas, Cath., and Anna Catharina, Luth.; b. Oct. 18, 1749; bap. April 16.
p. 70 1766 Maria Eva STRAUB, d. Andreas and Catharina; b. Jan. 23; bap. May 18.

5b.  John T. Humphrey.  1991-1998.  Pennsylvania Births.  14 vols.  Self-published, Washington, DC (Broderbund Family Archives: Birth Index: Southeastern PA, 1680-1800, CD-196):
Child Andreas Straub Valentine Straube Maria Eva Straub
Event Birth/Baptism Birth/Baptism Birth/Baptism
Event Date Feb 1748 18 Oct 1749 23 Jan 1766
Church Trinity Lutheran Church Trinity Lutheran Church Trinity Lutheran Church
Locaiton Lancaster Lancaster Lancaster
County Lancaster Lancaster Lancaster
State Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Pennsylvania
Father Andreas Straub Andreas Straube Andreas Straub
Mother Mrs. Catharina Straub Mrs. Anna Catharina Straube Mrs. Catharina Straub

6.  From a post by Gwen Boyer Borkman in the Archives of the STRAUB-L mailing list (online at RootsWeb.com):
Hawbaker and Groff: A New Index: Lancaster County, Pennsylvania Before the Federal Census, Volume 3, Index to the 1750 Tax Records, pp. 99-102.
STROUT, ANDW. Hempfield twp, 1756  ["Laborrows"]

7.  From a statewide index of 1780 Pennsylvannia tax lists in the Denver Public Library, p. 176 (extracted by Jim Burnell):
1780 Tax List Strout, Andreas Lancaster Co. Hempfield

8.  Anon.  1911.  Genealogical & Biographical Annals of Northumberland County.  J.L. Floyd & Co., Chicago. Biographical sketch of subject's grandson, Jacob STRAUB and his kin, which states that "the emigrant" married in America, settled in Columbia, and lived out his days there, with the implication that his children were born there.  Jacob names his grandfather's children as Andrew, Valentine, Mrs. HOUGENDOBLER,  and Mrs. MERKLE [the former being Maria Eva, the latter Anna Maria] no son, Johannes, is mentioned, but as Johannes was deceased before Jacob was born, it's possible Jacob wouldn't have remembered this uncle. 

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