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David STROUP, Sr.
Ms. __?__
Mary RAY
WARNING:  David may not have had a wife prior to Mary RAY (or children prior to Jacob); the evidence is entirely circumstantial.
Husband:  David STROUP, Sr.
Birth:  1795/6, PA
Death:  30 Apr 1876
Occupation:  farmer?
Father:  John STROUP
Mother:  Mary STEELY
Marriage-1:
Wife-1?:  Ms. __?__
Marriage-2:  13 Feb 1822, Madison Co., OH
Wife-2:  Mary "Polly" RAY
Birth:  1803/4, NC? SC?
Death:  28 Jun 1881
Occupation:  homemaker
Children? with Wife-1?:
  1.  (Son A) STROUP, b. 1815-20
  2.  (Daughter A) STROUP, b. 1815-20
  3.  (Daughter B) STROUP, b. 1820-25
Children with Mary RAY born in Stokes Twp., Madison Co., OH:
  4.  Jacob STROUP, b. 1822/3
  5.  David STROUP, Jr., b. 1826/7
  6.  Jesse STROUP, b. 1 Mar 1828/9
  7.  Mary STROUP, b. 1829/30
  8.  Alfred STROUP, b. 11 Aug 1833; d. 18 Aug 1883, Madison Co., OH; m. Charity S. CRABB (1837-1915)
  9.  Rebecca STROUP, b. 1838/9; m. Mr. McCOLLUM
10.  William STROUP, b. 1840/1
Keywords for search engines:  genealogy; USA, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina

Sources:

1.  Anon.  1966.  Marriage Index:  Ohio, 1789-1850.  Liahona Research, Orem, UT (Broderbund CD-400):
Stroup, David Ray, Polly 13 Feb 1822 Madison Co.

2.  1830 Census Index and Digital Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #7 of 9; extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
1830 OH Madison Co. Stokes Twp. p. 112 Ln. 22 David Stroup 211 001 - 111 010
These data indicate:
No. & Sex  Age Class Therefore Born Individuals Inferred
2 males 4 or under 1825-1830 = Jesse (b. 1828/9)
= David (b. 1826/7)
1 male 5-9 1820-1825 = Jacob (b. 1822/3) 
1 male 10-14 1815-1820 = Son? A
1 male 30-39 1790-1800 = David (b. 1795/6)
1 female 4 or under 1825-1830 = Mary (b. 1829/30)
1 female 5-9 1820-1825 = Daughter? B
1 female 10-14 1815-1820 = Daughter? A
1 female 20-29 1800-1810 = Polly (b. 1803/4) 
Given the age difference between David & Mary and given the older children in the home, it appears that David had a prior wife.  On the other hand, I cannot find an earlier marriage record for David, nor can I find him as head-of-household in the 1820 census.  Listed next to William STROUP on one side; and, in the other direction, listed next to David's father, John STROUP, Sr., who is listed next to Joseph STROUP; the list is not alphabetized.

3.  1840 Census Index and Digital Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #1-2 of 8; extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
1840 OH Madison Co. Stokes Twp. pp. 49A-49B Ln. 20 David Stroup 012 100 100 - 101 101 010 100 0100000
These data indicate:
No. & Sex Age Class Therefore Born Individuals Inferred
1 male 5-9 1830-1835 = Alfred (b. 1831/2)
2 males 10-14 1825-1830 = Jesse (b. 1828/9)
= David (b. 1826/7)
1 male 15-19 1820-1825 = Jacob (b. 1822/3)
1 male 40-49 1790-1800 = David (b. 1795/6)
1 female 4 or under 1835-1840 = Rebecca (b. 1838/9)
1 female 10-14 1825-1830 = Mary (b. 1829/30) 
1 female 15-19 1820-1825 = Daughter? B
1 female 30-39 1800-1810 = Polly (b. 1803/4)
1 female 50-59 1780-1790 = mother-in-law?
1 female 70-79 1760-1770 = mother?
1 person employed in agriculture
David's father died in the 1830s and his mother was born in the 1760s, so the eldest woman is almost certainly John's widowed mother.  The woman in her 50s could be Polly's mother.  They are listed three lines from David's brother, Joseph STROUP

4.  1850 Census Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #3 of 16):  Stokes Twp., Madison Co., OH, p. 242A, enumerated 14 Nov 1850, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1850 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
19 19 David Stroup 54 M   3000 Pa
    Mary     " 46 F     NC
    Jacob    " 27 M Farmer   Ohio
20 20 David Stroup 23 M Farmer   Ohio
    Jesse    " 21 M Farmer   Ohio
    Mary     " 20 F     Ohio
    Alfred   " 18 M Farmer   Ohio
    Rebecca  " 11 F     Ohio
    William  "  9 M     Ohio
Both Davids are indexed as head-of-household, but there's no earthly reason for the junior David to have been made head-of-household, so he should not have been given his own visitation numbers, not unless he is truly living next door, in which case I would suspect Mary is his wife.

5.  1860 Census Index/Images (online at Genealogy.com, Image #11 of 20):  London P.O., Paint Twp., Madison Co., OH, Roll 1004 (Book 1), p. 355A, PN 115, 762/809, enumerated 26 Jul 1860, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1860 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤
David Stroup 64 M   Farmer 10,500  350 Pennsylvania
Mary Stroup 57 F         S Carolina
David Stroup 34 M   Farmer   2500 Ohio
William Stroup 17 M   Farmer     "
Mary Cains? 18 F         "

6.  1870 Census Index/Images (online at Genealogy.com, Image #22 of 24 indexed "Strout"):  Mt. Sterling P.O., Paint Twp., Madison Co., OH, Roll 1238 (Book 1), p. 691B, PN 22, 156/152, enumerated 14 Jul 1870, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1870 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
Stroup David 75 M W Retired Farmer 13,350 300 Pennsylvania
______ Mary 67 F W Keeping House     North Carolina
______ William 28 M W Farmer   200 Ohio
______ Wilbert  5 M W Attending School     Ohio
Gain Jessie 10 M W Attending School     Ohio
Tranbridge? David 19 M W Works on Farm     Ohio
Cannor? Allice 17 F W Attending School     Ohio
It appears William is a widower and Wilbert is his son.

7.  1880 Census Every-Name-Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com, Image #4 of 26):  Paint Twp., Madison Co., OH, Roll T9_1044, p. 263D, PN 4, SD 5, ED 62, enumerated 10 Jun 1880, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1880 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):
1880:  for an explanation of the column headings, please see
What the Numbers in the Federal Census Mean (missing columns contained no data).
1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 13 14 20 21 23 24 25 26
30 34 Stroup Phebe W F 46     / Keeping house         IL KY TN
    ______ Victor W M 21 Son /   Farmer         IL IL IL
    ______ Wilbert W M 17 Son /       / /   OH OH IL
    ______ John W M 15 Son /   Laborer 4   /   OH OH IL
    ______ Mary W F 76 M-in-law   /     /   / SC    
    Dickson Jennie L W F 11 Niece /   At School     /   IL IL IL
    Gains Jesse W M 21 Nephew /   Farmer         OH VA OH
    Gains Thomas W M 49 B-in-Law   / Nurseryman 6 /     VA VA VA
Listed next to Aaron GAINS (æ 59, b. OH) and wife Hannah (æ 43, b. OH).

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