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Caleb STROUP
Amy ABERNATHY
Ann __?__
WARNING:  Secondary sources give Caleb just one wife, Amy ABERNATHY, but it is difficult to reconcile Caleb's census records without postulating a second wife.  In particular, the sudden appearance of Louisa in the 1860 census suggests she's the daughter of a second wife's previous marriage, which is also supported by the fact that Caleb's wife aged 14 years between 1850 and 1860; that she is clearly named Ann, not Amy; and that there is a gap of 13 years between the births of the last two children, Cornelius and Emily.  What we need, of course, are the marriage records.  On the other hand… I've seen worse mistakes made by census enumerators, so Caleb may, in fact, have had only one wife (viz., Amy Ann ABERNATHY), and Lawson/Louise may be one person, badly garbled by one or the other of the enumerators.
Husband:  Caleb STROUP
Birth:  1819/20, Lincoln Co., NC
Death:  17 Jan 1864, Richmond, Henrico Co., VA
Occupation:  farmer
Father:  Moses STROUP
Mother:  Susannah MASTERS
Marriage-1:  ca. 1840
Wife-1:  Amy ABERNATHY / ABERNETHY
Birth:  1826/7, NC
Occupation:  homemaker
Father:  James ABERNATHY, d. 3 Oct 1841, Lincoln Co., NC; ancestors early to VA
Mother:  Frances "Fanny" CLODFELTER
Marriage-2:  ca. 1860
Wife-2:  Ann "Anny" __?__
Birth:  1822/3, NC
Occupation:  homemaker
Children with Amy ABERNATHY — born in Gaston Co., NC:
1.  Lawson STROUP, b. 1843/4
2.  Susannah "Susan" STROUP, b. 18 Jun 1844 
3.  Frances "Fanny" STROUP, b. 14 May 1846
4.  Hannah P. STROUP, b. 11 Oct 1848 
5.  Marcus Cornelius STROUP, b. 10 Sep 1850
Child with Ann — born in Gaston Co., NC:
6.  Emily Theodocia STROUP, b. 16 Apr 1863
Adopted? Child:
.  Louisa __?__ - STROUP, b. 1841/2

Louisa is not living with our subject in the 1850 census making it unlikely she is Caleb's daughter.  Her sudden appearance in 1860 suggests she may have been the daughter of Caleb's second wife from her prior marriage.  Or maybe the enumerator just screwed up, either in 1850 or in 1860.

Keywords for search engines:  genealogy; USA, US, United States, North Carolina, Virginia

Sources:

1.  Marriage Record:

2.  1850 Census Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com; Image #28 of 149 — mis-indexed "Strup"):  Gaston Co., NC, Roll 630, p. 404B, 200/201, enumerated 18 Aug 1850, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1850 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤•
Caleb Strop 30 M   Farmer 75 No Ca
Anny/Amey 23 F       "
Lauson  6 M       "
Susanah  5 F       "
Francis  3 F       North Carolina
Hannah  1 F       "
Caleb's wife's name is a capital "A" followed by four bumps, then a "y":  it could be Anny or Amey.  The eldest child is definitely male and definitely not named, "Louisa."  It appears "Lauson" was an attempt at spelling Lawson (a given name that runs in the family).

3.  1860 Census Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com, Image #162 of 183):  Cottage Home P.O., Gaston Co., NC, p. 162, PN 162, 1243/1137, enumerated 23 Aug 1860, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1860 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤•
Caleb Stroup 40 M   Farmer 500 567 Lincoln
Anny      " 37 F         "
Louisa    " 18 F         "
Susanah   " 16 F         "
Fanny     " 14 F         "
Hannah    " 10 F         "
Cornetius "  8 M         "
The eldest child is clearly female and clearly Louisa.

4.  1870 Census Every-Name-Index/Images (online at Ancestry.com, Image #44 of 51):  Dallas P.O., Cherryville Twp., Gaston Co., NC, Roll M593_1138, p. 676B, PN 308/44, 356/356, enumerated 18 Aug 1870, official enumeration date 1 Jun 1870 (extracted by Diana Gale Matthiesen):¤•
Stroup Ann 46 F W Keeping house 300 200 N Ca
   "   Hannah 21 F W at Home     "
   "   Plidacia  7 F W       "
Listed two households from Caleb's son, Cornelius STROUP (æ 19).

5.  1880 Census Index/Extracton (online at FamilySearch.org):  can't find.

6.  1890 Census:  the 1890 Census Population Schedules were destroyed.

7.  Edith Warren Huggins.  1957.  "Huggins and Allied Families of North Carolina." Pages 15-21 in John Bennett Bodie. Historical Southern Families.  Vol. X.  Pacific Coast Publishers, Redwood City, CA (republ. 1966 by Clearfield, Blto., MD; repub. 1993/5 by Genealogy Publ. Co., Blto., MD; republ. 1998 as Broderbund CD-191):
p. 19 Children [of John A. HUGGINS]...
  I.  Mary Huggins, b. ca. 1841, in Rutherford Co., m. 5/3/1859, in Lincoln Co., J. F. Willis.
 II.  Margaret Elizabeth Huggins, b. ca. 1843, in Rutherford Co., d. 6/24/1925, at Worth, Gaston Co., m. 3/17/1864, in Lincoln Co., Philip Ballard.
III.  Elizabeth Janie Huggins, b. ca. 1844, in Rutherford Co., m. after 1860, Marcus Cornelius Stroup.
 IV.  Michael Hoke Huggins, b. ca. 1845, in Rutherford Co., m. 9/9/1866, in Lincoln Co., Nancy Jane Stroup.
  V.  Josephus A. Huggins, b. ca. 1848, in Rutherfor Co., m. 12/24/1867, in Gaston Co., Catharine Susannah Stroup.
 VI.  John S. Huggins, b. ca. 1849, in Rutherford Co., m. before 1875, Martha ____.
VII.  Charles Wesley Huggins, b. 4/5/1852, in Rutherford Co., d. 5/6/1930, at Worth Gaston Co., m. 12/14/1871, in Gaston Co., Hannah P. Stroup, b. 10/11/1848, d. 11/21/1902, (sister of the above mentioned Stroups), dau. of Caleb and Amy Abernethy Stroup, son of Moses and Susannah Masters Stroup, son of Philip and Molly Eddleman Stroup, son of Jacob and Nancy Rhyne Stroup, son of Peter and Marie Straub (German) of Pa.  Amy Abernethy Stroup, wife of Caleb, was dau. of James Abernethy, who d. 10/3/1841, in Lincoln Co., whose Abernethy ancesotrs were among the earliest from Va. (Ref: 1880 Census, Lincoln Co., Ironton Twp., p. 22. Also Bible records)...
For larger excerpt, see John A. HUGGINS's page

8.  Archives of the STRAUB-L mailing list (online at RootsWeb.com).

9.  Messages in the Stroup Family Genealogy Forum (online at GenForum.com).

10.  WorldConnect / Ancestry World Trees (online at RootsWeb.com/Ancestry.com).

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